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Physics stops you from heating up liquids that consist of mostly water to temperatures above (roughly) 100 C. The temperature of your heating element can be set higher, but neither the temperature of the water bath nor the liquid in your jars can go higher than the boiling point where water changes from liquid to vapor - which is 100 C at normal pressure ...


23

Virtually every case of botulism ever recorded in the past 50 years is due to improper home canning. The risk of botulism from a commercial product is so low that you literally have a better chance of being struck by lightning and almost as good a chance as being struck twice in the same year. There are 145 cases reported in the U.S. each year and 65% of ...


13

This completely depends on all of the other factors involved in botulinum growth, not to mention the particular strain you're concerned about (there are several). Salt, acidity (low pH), low moisture, and extreme temperature (low or high) will all slow botulinum growth significantly. There are proteolytic and non-proteolytic types of bacteria. The ...


12

There is absolutely real truth to improper sous vide cooking and botulism. Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic organism - it grows when there isn't oxygen - like in sous vide vacuums and canned goods. The risk is that sous vide cooks both without oxygen and at temperatures so close to the perfect repoduction rate for the organism. If you cook it a ...


12

According to research conducted at the University of Idaho and published in 2014 in the journal Food Protection Trends, there are now consumer guidelines to process garlic (and certain herbs) safely through acidification before adding to oil. I would read the first link thoroughly to understand the necessary process. To ensure safety, follow the steps ...


9

It is normal for store bought canned beans to have a cloudy liquid. This applies to previously dried, starchy beans such as cannellini, kidney, etc. The water will get cloudy also when you cook dried beans. For others like green string beans or wax beans you would expect to see a clear liquid.


9

There's nothing magical about garlic that causes it to be especially prone to botulism - it's just commonly found as an example because it's commonly used to prepare flavoured oils. All low-acid foods must be acidified or pressure-canned before long-term storage. Storage in oil creates an anaerobic environment which further promotes botulism, and room-...


8

Do you make home-made ham? While home-curing of meat isn't rocket-science, it isn't trivial either. If someone got botulism from home-made ham then quite likely either it wasn't ham at all, because it hadn't actually cured the pork correctly, or it was too long in a wet-cure fluid that even though that fluid is pretty much designed to kill bacteria like ...


8

I can't come up with a way to do this that is not problematic. First, no canning authority I can find provides instructions on how to re-can under pressure food that is already canned. The closest instructions I can find are from the national center for food preservation, which basically say "don't do it". Second, you're talking about a month between ...


7

Anaerobic simply means "absence of air." Any liquid food environment basically counts as "anaerobic." Yes, there may be some dissolved gases and exchange of air may happen near the surface of a liquid like water, but deeper in an undisturbed liquid, there's often not enough air to prevent botulism growth. Some basically "solid" foods count too, if they ...


7

Octern, It's a realative thing. What you're trying to determine is: where these gas bubbles generated out of something inside liquid portion of the can? The reason that can be hard to determine is that many cans have a little air trapped in them. If the can has been agitated at all (doesn't need to be extensively), then you can get what look like bubbles ...


6

Nitrate, through the action of lactobacillus in meat, breaks down into nitrite. Nitrite then rapidly breaks down releasing nitric oxide, which combines with myoglobin present in muscle tissue, 'curing' the meat. When this process is complete, and if the correct amount of nitrates/nitrates were used in the cure, almost* all of the nitrate/nitrites will be ...


6

Those pickles create their own acid. Wild bacteria that can handle the very high salt content produce lactic acid, thus preserving the pickles. Botulism won't grow in that much salt and with how acidic the pickles are going to be when they're done. That's kind of the point of pickling in the first place. The instructions say to leave the lid loose because ...


5

One of the nicer things about botulism (there are not many) is that heat does neutralize the toxin. So unless you are licking the raw potatoes, not likely to be a problem. The odds of the foil-wrapping being actually airtight are also about zero, so it's unlikely that you'd actually get botulism, as that requires an anaerobic environment. Now, why you'd ...


5

There's no reason to believe it's safer. Garlic in oil is "unsafe" by FDA standards. Which means that roughly one in 100,000 bottles of homemade garlic oil kills someone. Before reading about the botulism risk, my friends and I used to make garlic oil at home and hand it out; I'd say we distributed probably 100 bottles, some of which stayed on the shelf ...


4

REDACTED. Botulism growth is inhibited at pH of 4.6 or lower. The pH of this recipe is lower than 4.6 because of the vinegars. http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09305.html After re-reading the recipe, I think the OP is right. This is not the safest recipe out there. For a great pickling recipe that is safe, try this: http://www.foodnetwork.com/...


4

Salt inhibits bacterial growth mainly by drawing moisture out of the meat. A wet cure (brine) would be substantially less effective at this than a dry cure, unless you add much more salt to your brine and, also, you take the extra step of drying the meat afterwards. Besides, the texture of the final product is likely to be substantially different, possibly ...


4

I don't think many of us have actually seen bad canned tomatoes. It is exceedingly rare. The risk versus reward ratio to save a bit of tomato which is not very expensive just isn't worth it. Discard.


4

Short answer: Homemade salad dressing, even with garlic, is generally considered safe, for a time frame of up to a week. While some strains of botulism can grow slowly at refrigerator temperatures, in general botulism requires three things to grow in addition to having spores present: Low salt, low acid environment Low oxygen environment Temperatures ...


4

From what I understand about this, it's not so much about the raw potatoes being foil wrapped as it is about the baking and storing afterward. From EnCognitive.com: Though rare, most foodborne botulism in the U.S. is from improper home canning. But according to a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, potatoes baked in aluminum foil ...


4

First, a little context...botulism is extremely rare...only 145 cases in the US in 2015, and of those, only 15% were food borne according to the CDC. You do need to be aware and careful, but not fearful. There are lots of easier ways to get sick and die. Secondly, the risk is higher in low acid vegetables (4.6 or higher) than high pH. Garlic is an ...


4

I don't know that I can give a definitive answer about safety, knowing little about how clean your apparatus was to begin with, how exactly you have it set up (container type, how you are "burping," etc.). Most importantly, I don't know what recipe you used and whether it was verified as safe through a scientific process.[*See note] All of that said, your ...


3

First off, I assume this may partly be out of caution since many (probably most) people don't take cooling leftovers seriously. Yes, spores do survive cooking, and yes, they can very well make you sick, particularly if food is left at room temperature to cool for hours before refrigeration. Classic example is in many cases of "leftover Chinese" food ...


3

No, there's no risk. Cheese has too much salt and acidity to harbor botulism even at room temperature; there's practically no chance of it growing in the refrigerator even with low-acid food, and literally zero chance of it growing in the freezer on any food. I don't think data is publicly available on individual botulism cases in the U.S. or worldwide, but ...


3

I suspected that @FuzzyChef's answer was essentially correct, but I felt that the question was not conclusively answered without sources, so I ended up never accepting an answer. Thankfully, Linda Harris published this very comprehensive summary (which I recommend you to read if you are a fan of garlic), from which these parts stand out: Garlic is a low-...


3

Botulism thrives in high-moisture, low-acidity, low-salinity, anaerobic environments at between 50 and 130 degrees. In your refridgerator pickles, you're: keeping cold adding acid adding salt All of which should at least prevent the botulism from reproducing in great enough numbers to be toxic, if not outright killing it. That's not to say nothing ...


3

I was a mechanical engineer. The heat transfer will be much quicker in the ice bath because you will have full surface contact between the meat and the water, even into all the nooks, cracks and crevices of the meat. This is not possible just putting it in tghe freezer. Water is a great conductor of heat. Air is an insulator. You will have parts of the meat ...


3

I like to explain the physics this way: heat is a thing, temperature is a place. If you put a hot thing next to a cold thing, heat stuff will flow out of the hot thing into the cold thing. This will cause the cold thing's temperature to rise, and the hot things's temperature to fall, unless other factors interfere. How far and how fast these temperatures ...


2

You won't grow significant cultures of clostridium botulinum in temperatures below 50°F. On the flipside, unfortunately, refrigerator temperatures - while retarding growth - do not destroy the bacterium or inactivate or destroy its toxin. The good news is, normal boiling inactivates present toxins, so even if you have c. botulinum present in the brine but ...


2

No, it is not safe. You need a pressure canner. That's what the USDA says about anything containing meat: There are no safe options for canning these foods listed below in a boiling water canner. See http://nchfp.uga.edu/how/can_04/soups.html for a table of pressures and processing times.


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