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48

Milk in bread dough is an enriching agent. Other typical enriching agents for bread include things like eggs, fats (butter, oil, etc.), and different types of sugar/sweetener. They are used to add either fat or sugar or both. Bread made without enriching agents is known as a lean dough, typically containing only flour, water, salt, and yeast. Lean doughs ...


39

There are a few options: Most bread machines have an option to knead/mix only - you can then take the dough out and shape and bake as you would if you were doing things by hand. You can also get "dough hooks" for most stand mixers (e.g. Kenwood or Kitchenaid), these are a bent arm or corkscrew sort of shape designed to knead the dough, and are what is ...


35

No, you cannot use baking powder to dip pretzels. To get their characteristic color and crust, pretzels are traditionally boiled in lye. Another alkaline solution, i.e. those containing a base, can be used as well. Let's look at how baking soda and powder are used as leavers: Baking soda is a base (namely sodium bicarbonate) that releases carbon dioxide gas ...


33

The whole idea of adding the yeast before kneading is to be able to mix it uniformly. By adding the yeast after the dough is formed, it will be mechanically more difficult to combine it and you might end up with lumps of yeastless dough. Those lumps won't rise. I suspect your bread will have a denser, non uniform crumb.


30

You don't need bread flour to make decent bread, plain flour doesn't generally have as much gluten content but it has enough to make bread that's perfectly fine. You won't get the same texture as with bread flour, it won't be as elastic a result. Gluten is a protein, strong flour has more protein in it than plain flour, but there isn't always that much ...


23

Milk does create gluten1 when combined with flour. The water in the milk does create a gluten structure. If it didn't, any bread made with milk would be dense and flat. But the dinner rolls I made yesterday (with no water, only milk) were light and airy. Milk clearly creates gluten. Note that gluten isn't only about elasticity. Beginning bread makers ...


22

A basic flatbread can be made by mixing flour, a little oil (if possible) and just enough water to make it stick together. Salt is often added. No real kneading is needed, just mixing, but a little kneading helps. Then roll/pound/press flat and cook in a frying pan or on a hot stone. In Egypt I've seen something similar cooked on the side of an old ...


22

Commercially produced yeast has been around since the mid-late 1800s, and the commercial strains we use today have been around since the 40s while Ciabatta was invented in 1982. So while ciabatta seems like it's a very old traditional thing it is relatively new, and commercial yeast was widely available.


20

Kneading in a bowl is time-consuming and doesn't give as good a result as kneading on a flat surface, however I'll concentrate on cleaning. First, don't let things dry out, it's much easier to clean when things are moist, if you do let it dry out moisten it and let it soften before you try and clean it. Use cold water as hot water makes starches and ...


20

Alternatively (with respect to @GdD's answer), let it dry out completely. Totally dry dough doesn't stick all that well to many surfaces (glass, plastic, non-stick). It then chips/scrapes off quite easily. If I get it on my oak worktops and don't notice immediately, that's what I do, scraping with a plastic scraper or a butter knife, even a fingernail on ...


18

If it is turning to "slime", losing shape, and becoming sticky again, you are probably not building enough strength in the dough. First, I would try the same recipe, holding back 50 - 100 g of the water. Work with a slightly lower hydration until you get the feel for things. Then, make sure your initial kneading/stretch and fold takes at least 8-10 ...


16

Your two requirements are somewhat at cross-purpose. The minimal ingredients for a fairly typical bread are flour and water, but then you need to have several days to weeks to establish a working starter. If you are willing to have a three-ingredients bread, then your best choice is a soda bread. You only need flour, water and baking powder. The time would ...


15

I found that autolysing the dough before kneading reduces necessary kneading time drastically. I do the following: mix flour with water with spoon (just coarse, so that no flour stays dry) let it sit around an hour mix in the sourdough, short kneading mix in the salt, short kneading (it should not stick to the bowl anymore at this point) Also, if you make ...


15

The answer is that there are a range of (natural) sugars in the flour and a range of sugars that can be generated by the yeast by breaking down the starches and other carbohydrates in flour. Yeast are a hardy organism and can metabolize many different carbohydrates to produce sugars for successful growth. Carbohydrates are chemical compounds composed of ...


15

Without preservatives in the bread your bread won't last as long as store-bought, but there are some things you can do to make it last longer: Proof the bread longer, thus creating more acid in the bread. This will help preserve it. Make sure it is fully baked and a little drier. Cool it fully on a rack before storing, allowing more steam to exit the loaf ...


14

The crucial ingredient is water - which turns into steam in a very hot oven. Let me explain based on a standard pita bread process. A comparatively simple dough (flour, water, salt, yeast) is kneaded, shaped into balls and left to rise. Before baking, the balls are rolled out in thin circles or ovals and baked on a hot surface, either a baking stone in an ...


13

I agree with @GdD's answer, and it should be the main answer, but I wanted to throw in another bit of advice. If you find that your all purpose flour does not give you the results that you want, look for vital wheat gluten. It's less likely that people will be hoarding that. Adding a bit of wheat gluten should make AP flour act much more like bread flour. ...


13

With a bread maker, it's important to follow the recipe closely, at least until you've got a reliable result , when you can start experimenting. Mine, for example, expects "tepid" water for most programs, which the book defines as 20-25°C. The super rapid program requires 46-51°C. Cooler and there won't be time for the yeast to get going, much ...


11

Let's start with what Gluten development actually is. It's the process of developing the protein in flour, gluten, into a web that traps air into it. Water is essential for this web, and as you mention 87% of milk is water. However, 3% of milk (whole milk, at least) is fat. This fat will coat the gluten molecules, preventing them from being shaped into a ...


10

I'm going to work on the assumption that your dough is fully worked and at the right hydration level. If your dough is losing shape it's possible it's too high hydration or you haven't develop the gluten enough. Gluten development uses water so lowers the free water in the dough. Keep in mind that if you are just getting into sourdough and high hydration the ...


9

"Bread flour" (or actually the wheat cultivar used for it) is a North American invention that has spread also to Great Britain. In most other countries, home bakers are not even aware of the existence of bread flour, and bake bread with the equivalent of all-purpose flour. You can use all purpose flour almost all your bread recipes without any change. Only ...


9

Yes, you can add instant yeast to a sourdough. However, the fact that you used AP vs bread flour should not have much to do with the fermentation activity. The different flours have different protein contents, which impact gluten development. Certainly, allowing it to ferment overnight is an option, but if you are short on time you can use an instant yeast ...


8

The bread improvers that I have seen simply encourage gluten development to improve bread texture. They are often called for for use in bread machines because those machines are not as effective at kneading. Many bread improvers are as simple as extra vitamin C. Without knowing the details of the machine you are planning to use it is difficult to say whether ...


8

It's hard to say exactly what went wrong, I've worked with plenty of high hydration doughs and sourdoughs so I have a few ideas though. I can see from your picture that you did get yeast action in your dough, with lots of holes and good structure, so you did something right, probably most of it. Shape Firstly, whole wheat flour absorbs more water than ...


8

You may have done nothing wrong, it's common for bread dough to be very sticky after mixing. If you have your measuring right and the recipe is right time and technique will turn it from sticky to smooth. There's 3 things that will happen: Absorption: flour doesn't absorb moisture instantly, most gets absorbed very quickly, but then some takes a bit more ...


7

Due to Coronavirus, it has been impossible to find baking yeast. So I bought some packets of this online thinking I might be able to use them to make bread. I was a bit put off when reading that it is not to be used for making bread, but being a biologist and home brewer I figured the yeast couldn’t be that much different than regular old Sacchromyces. I ...


7

Pre-baked baguettes are typically not browned at all when you buy them. If there is a crust all all, it is still very soft and mostly the same colour as the inside of the bread. The main chemical change undergone by cooking them is browning the outside. The inside is slightly undercooked when you buy them, to make sure it doesn't dry out completely when you ...


7

Methods, from best to worst (assuming the bread is in a sealed plastic bag): Freezing Room temperature Refrigerating According to the FAQs for Dave's Killer Bread, which does not use preservatives: Q: How should I store my bread? A: The best way to store your bread is on your counter or in a bread box at room temperature. Take care to keep your bread away ...


7

AFAIK it's really difficult to knead dough with a hand mixer even if it comes equipped with dough hooks. I was in your shoes a while ago too and after some research, found that it's basically useless for kneading dough. Unless you're Popeye, you're not going to be able to hold the mixer and the bowl steady enough for the dough to get kneaded. I ended up ...


7

You mentioned in a comment on myklbykl's answer that you include mix-in ingredients like sun-dried tomatoes, jalapenos, and cheddar, which sounds delicious! However, that also means that you will have more overall moisture and more starting points for mold to take hold than you would when making a plain bread. That could be contributing to the faster molding....


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