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47

Milk in bread dough is an enriching agent. Other typical enriching agents for bread include things like eggs, fats (butter, oil, etc.), and different types of sugar/sweetener. They are used to add either fat or sugar or both. Bread made without enriching agents is known as a lean dough, typically containing only flour, water, salt, and yeast. Lean doughs ...


33

The whole idea of adding the yeast before kneading is to be able to mix it uniformly. By adding the yeast after the dough is formed, it will be mechanically more difficult to combine it and you might end up with lumps of yeastless dough. Those lumps won't rise. I suspect your bread will have a denser, non uniform crumb.


26

I don't think that it is really necessary to use your knuckles. Rather, there are ways to knead dough well, and ways to knead dough badly. I have seen ineffective people pinching the dough, or turning it between their hands, or other strange motions, which in a cargo-cult way resemble actual kneading, but don't do anything useful. My guess is that whoever ...


17

Sure, you can begin a new sour dough starter with the discard from a feeding. However, the reason for discarding isn't simply to reduce the amount. As your starter matures it also becomes much more acidic. Acidity is problematic for yeast and bacterial activity and, ultimately, the rise and flavor of your final product. So, you discard during feeding time ...


16

No, they aren't a direct substitute. Freeze dried blueberries are very dry and will absorb moisture from the dough in order to re-hydrate, frozen ones are not dried or dehydrated at all so will add water to the dough. They also have a very different consistency: thawed from frozen blueberries will be squishy and tend to get blended into the dough, dried ...


15

Absolutely you can. When you use the starter to make bread you make an arbitrary decision of which part of the starter you use and which to feed, the part you scoop out is just as viable as the part you keep. When you discard some instead of using it the same rule applies, so all you need to do is put some in a container and feed it the same way. You can ...


15

Unlikely. Without even getting into the mechanics of how it would work, simple physics dictates that you can't get the temperature of this "immersion oven" above 100 degrees Celsius. Most cakes and breads are cooked at temperatures above 170 degrees Celsius. A second issue is that moisture can escape when baking in a normal oven. Your "immersion oven" would ...


14

Assuming the pans are made for the oven (e.g. Pyrex or a similar brand), I would say no. At least, I never do. Also, unless a recipe specifically calls for it, I think you are risking overcooking the outside of the loaf, especially with glass baking dishes. If you are worried about some sort of thermal shock cracking the dish, I think this would be more ...


12

This may not be the primary reason but I have hot hands and my knuckles are noticeably cooler than my palms or even the insides of my fingers. It's less of an issue with dough than with pastry but I still find that kneading with my palms makes the dough sticky compared to using my knuckles.


11

I would first check on the type of flour I am using. To produce breads, always use flour that contains the highest protein count. It is this protein that produces gluten, and the more of this protein the stronger the gluten. This can be called a multitude of things, from 'Strong Flour', to 'Baker's Flour', to 'Best For Bread'. Another thing you might want ...


10

Conventionally, drying is only the first step. The second is burning it and seeing how much energy is given off. But this isn't always the best way to determine the calories that your body gets from the food, as it doesn't deal with bio-availability - basically, can your body extract that energy from the food? Diet foods often cellulose or other fiber ...


10

So normally, stove top cooking never results in all around heat like in an oven but what if you were to submerge (underwater bath instead of just around the sides) a dish in simmering water and then cover it completely (to prevent water from getting in) until it's cooked? This sounds a lot like sous vide which is currently becoming commonplace after having ...


9

In addition to what @mrwienerdog has suggested... Bread machine recipes are a distinct branch of bread recipes. Most bread recipes that you find on the internet and in cookery books assume that you are making by hand (or at least using a mixer to knead the dough). Bread machines mix and knead the dough much less thoroughly than is needed compared to "hand" ...


9

For a firm loaf you want more gluten development. So: Cut out the fat: it impedes the reactions forming gluten. Make sure your yeast or sour-dough starter is active, or use instant yeast (very reliable in my experience): the carbon dioxide created as a by-product of fermentation promotes gluten development. Use stronger (that is, higher protein) white flour ...


7

FuzzyChef is correct that one reason for a multistage approach is to ensure the starter is operating "at full strength" before mixing the final dough. (And it's also important to note the imbalance of bacteria and yeast mentioned in that answer.) A lot of people don't bake bread reliably every week, and reviving a starter that's been in the fridge for ...


7

Additions to GdD: You likely would get a very different look and taste even if accounting for liquid and volume. The freeze dried berries are going to usually be more concentrated in flavor, giving more a berry pop I would call it when eaten. Fresh or frozen, not so. As you mix and cook there flavor will spread along with the juice and you will loose ...


7

I can't speak for all restaurants, but those where I've been served obviously home made croutons also served similar bread with other dishes. Bread is cheap and readily available. Why would a restaurant bother doing anything more difficult? If you can get day old bread from a bakery it's even better, because that's really cheap, and works at least as well as ...


7

There are three likely causes: over-proofing, insufficient gluten development, and too loose shaping. Some combination is probably most likely. To detect over-proofing try the `poke-test': if the dough springs back immediately, the dough is under-proofed; if the indent stays as it is, the dough is over-proofed. I've found Dan Lepard's advice in The Handmade ...


6

I've since figured it out. Gluten free bread is very particular, and the moisture has to be just right. If there's not enough water, the dough is too dense and won't rise. If there's too much water, it will rise, but in the oven, the bubbles bubble through the too, causing the loaf to collapse (I sat and stared and watched it happen). I've since learned what ...


6

You need to increase something and time is the easiest: for 50% more weight add 50% more time is the rule of thumb for an increase up to 100%. You can also increase both temperature and time but then you should halve each so 25% hotter and 25% longer. Note: This works up to an increase of 100%. Larger than that, volume calculations come into place too.


6

I make the same Challah bread recipe every year, and mine says to bake at 350°f for 35 min and the crust is chewy but not crunchy or crisp. I've never had it under baked either.


6

Adding molasses or brown sugar will add a brown color to the dough, how much to add is a bit of a trick to get right, but it should be proportional to the amount of sugar in the dough. Most 1 lb recipes I have from American sources use about 1/3 cup of molasses. The shine might well be additional gluten added to increase the chew (two with one stone perhaps!...


6

I presume that you meant a fridge, rather than a freezer. Fridges are by design pretty dry, and the best is to cover the dough with some cling film or some other impermeable barrier. (The wet cloth will dry up pretty fast.) The dry caked surface is just dried up dough, and can be worked back into the rest. (It may need a little bit more liquids, but not ...


6

Here are a few ideas, starting with how you can make bread work, based on my comment: Bread rolls often keep better than loaves, because they have a crust all round. You can often buy them singly. Demi baguettes are similar but about twice the size. Part baked rolls keep for months (sealed, once open keep in the fridge and use within a few days). You ...


6

Giving a minimum time is not possible, because it depends on the size of the loaf, whether it is in a pan or not, and the ambient temperature of the location where it is cooling. In general, the recommendation is to cool the loaf to room temperature. If you are baking rolls, this might mean 30 minutes. For a larger loaf, it could be hours. At the risk of ...


6

If you add yeast after you develop the gluten you will have to knead a lot to make sure it is distributed throughout, and you will end up overkneading your dough leading to a tough result. Kneading is only one thing that develops gluten, yeast assists in gluten development by opening up the structure when it releases CO2. Opening up the structure allows ...


5

No it is not mold. They are coarse particles of some kind of grain (often corn meal, but in this case maybe wheat as corn meal is usually yellower). They sometimes sprinkle these on when they bake the bread; Sometimes on the bottom of the loaf (often with French bread) I think to keep the bread from sticking to the pan as it bakes. Also makes the bread look ...


5

You certainly don't need that much gluten for a brioche. A brioche is in fact somewhere between bread and cake, and very different in crumb from high gluten breads. 14% is not even typical bread flour, it is probably bagel flour. It will give you a gummy, resilient crumb even if you manage to bake large holes into it, while for the brioche you want cottony ...


5

The sugar competes with proteins and starches (read:flour) for water. With less water available for the flour, fewer gluten chains are able to form resulting in a more tender dough.


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