39

I notice that your recipe doesn't include any salt. That's important, because salt decreases the sensation of bitterness. Chicken contains a certain amount of salt, and I suspect that's making the difference. (The "umami" -- brothy -- taste of chicken may also decrease the sensation of bitterness, though as I understand it there's still some disagreement ...


21

Gelatin and fat are different. Chill your stock. If a layer of fat solidifies at the surface, remove it. If you see no layer of solidified fat, you've probably eliminated as much as possible.


20

There's a great deal of variation in the quality of the pre-made stocks you get from different sources, so there's no clear-cut answer. Here's the types you might find: Stock cubes: these are dehydrated stock, or sometimes just chemicals meant to taste like it. It's the lowest quality option. There's a lot of variation here, I've found some brands (knorr ...


13

Yes, it is really chicken fat rendered during the stock making process. Called schmaltz in Yiddish, it is an ingredient in its own right. For example, you can use it to fry foods, or instead of butter in creating a roux, when you would like the chickeny flavor it provides. It is a key ingredient in matzo balls, and similarly, makes spectacularly good ...


11

Your question seems to have two parts: With what do I replace chicken stock to make the dish vegetarian and How can I add some zing to the dish for added interest? To answer 1, I'd make a hearty vegetable stock from scratch. Recipies abound. Alternatively you could rely on a bought stock but I find that these can be overpowering and of course you have ...


11

I never worry about this. As your stock simmers, the joints, muscle and connective tissue break down and eventually they'll sink in. Sometimes adding a bit of vinegar to your stock first helps with this. Until then, just stir the stock and move the bones around occasionally.


10

This is normal, expected, and desired. The long simmering of the bones will dissolve collagen in the connective tissue, creating gelatin, which will cause it to quite literally gel when cooled. This gives the stock a body and texture that is considered a virtue in using it for soup or as an ingredient in other recipes. When heated, the gelatin will melt ...


10

Beef bones can be used multiple times, but less flavor and gelatin will be extracted from each additional use. Harold McGee's "On Food and Cooking" describes this. Because a standard kitchen extraction of eight hours releases only about 20% of the gelatin in beef bones, the bones may be extracted for a second time, for a total of up to 24 hours. The ...


9

What you need for the conversion of collagen is a certain amount of energy. It is a complicated process - the melting point is around 70°C for the type of collagen contained in beef, but the melting does not happen instantly once the meat reaches 70°C. In a pressure cooking, you can apply the same amount of energy in a shorter amount of time. This is not bad,...


9

There are plenty of "non chicken" broths out there that are vegan/vegetarian. For example: http://www.imaginefoods.com/content/organic-no-chicken-broth Otherwise vegetable broth in general is very simple to find. I don't think you have to worry much about a vegetarian "missing" the taste of chicken or finding it lacking if you use veggie broth. I haven't ...


9

All excellent information, but can I answer bluntly: none of them come even CLOSE to the real thing. Once you use fresh stock, you will never, ever go back. Really. Making stock is easy, cheap, and as said above, unattended time. Stock forms the base of the kitchen, once you have it, you will notice the taste of everything you make improve so much. Get some ...


9

I have experimented with both chicken and beef stock (homemade) in bread, as a substitute for water. I would not call the results a 'failure', good loaves of bread did result, but I could not say they were any 'better' (or even different) than if I had not used the stock. The 'expected' flavor did not come through, though I did see a slight discoloration. ...


9

I make veg stock overnight in a slow cooker on high with similar ingredients to you: onion, garlic, carrot, bay, peppercorns. But: celery instead of celeriac (I grow celery and often have some old tough stems and leaves which are perfect for stock), rarely parsnip or leek, and often some other herbs or veg I've got to hand. I don't add salt, and my ...


8

Perhaps you could consider straining it twice? Use your strainer the first time to get out the larger particles and then do a second time with the cheesecloth so that it doesn't get clogged as easily. I imagine this wouldn't be any faster, but you'd have to fight with the clogged cheesecloth less.


8

Refrigerated stock is supposed to gel. Its caused by the gelatin you're (intentionally!) extracting from the bones. To determine if its a success, you'd taste it. Assuming it tastes right, then its a success. If you had you cooked it longer, you may have extracted a little more flavor & gelatin (so it'd be an even thicker gel). You can also make ...


7

Removing the scum makes it easier to control the temperature of the stock so you can maintain a constant simmer. If you don't skim it off, the scum aggregates in a foamy layer on the surface, which acts as insulation. It traps more heat in the stock and can cause your stock to boil when it would otherwise be simmering. Also, since stock often sits unattended ...


7

Not difficult at all if you truly want to get every possible last drop. Choose a large clean tea towel for this purpose only. After you've drained most of the liquids out, line your colander with the tea towel and pour the last bit with meat and vegetables in. I found using clothespins to the towel in place is best. Gather the corners up and you can either ...


6

Found these responses interesting. Here's what Sally Fallon Morell has to say: Scum will rise to the surface. This is a different kind of colloid, one in which larger molecules–impurities, alkaloids, large proteins called lectins–are distributed through a liquid. One of the basic principles of the culinary art is that this effluvium should be carefully ...


6

Broth is usually defined as having had bones/meat/veg boiled in it, so the dictionary says no. The lack of flavour also says no, and I doubt reducing it would make much difference. You could use the water to make broth or stock, if you have bones/vegetables to hand. What's more likely to have happened is that condensation dripped into the water. This will ...


5

Yes, that is fat. I can a lot of chicken meat from stewing hens and simmer 30 hens at a time in a large boil pot. Afterwards I chill the broth and peel a thick layer of fat from the top, clarify the fat by heating it on the stovetop to drive away any moisture, and strain it through flour sack towels into pint jars and freeze it. It comes out as white as ...


5

For ramen, udon, and soba, it is not uncommon for Japanese restaurants to use multiple broths for layered flavors. My friend is from Yamagata in Japan and several of her favorite Udon places will make a sturdy broth with dashi as well as pork and chicken stocks. When I make noodles at home, I almost always start with dashi and fortify with chicken or pork ...


5

I personally would not put potato skins in my chicken stock. The flavor does not complement the other elements, and the starches you will get will cloud the stock and make it a bit grainy.


5

Basically, a good stock is fairly concentrated. In general, home cooks use too high a water to bones/veg ratio for a proper result. So, when you leave your stock uncovered you are concentrating everything and, perhaps, getting a good result...at least one you like. However, this is difficult to tell without knowing your recipe. With respect to adding ...


4

Chicken broth is not vegetarian. Or if it is (soy?), you don't want to use it. The best way to make minestrone without chicken or beef broth -- and in my opinion, it's even better -- is simply long simmering. A proper minestrone should take between 50 and 90 minutes to cook. The second flavoring ingredient is a parmesan (parmigiano) cheese rind. The ...


4

See Stock vs Broth - What's the difference in usage? Like most cooking words there is no global definition. Fat content varies by ingredients and recipe. Some fat is retained in suspension, and some will be chemically attracted to components of the stock and be difficult to remove Some people stir in the fat, most people skim it off Commercial stock ...


4

They go into soup. Or pot pies. Or any of the other myriad industrially produced canned or frozen foods which require chicken stock or chicken flavoring and sometimes canned chicken meat. The millions of cans of Campbell's have to come from somewhere :-) For smaller home chicken farmers, they probably end up in the stock pot. If you know people who keep ...


4

Fine mesh sieve is the usual way, but the way you describe it, yours is not fine enough. Look in professional stores for a "chinois", this is the kind of sieve you need. But yes, it will take a long time. In classic restaurants, the stock will be cleared before going through the chinois. This is done by floating a rack of eggwhite which bounds the stray ...


4

I like to use a lint free surgical towel. It works much better than cheesecloth and is not as slow as a coffee filter.


4

I run mine through a colander first, then through a sieve. Then I lay a single layer of cheese cloth over the top and press down wirh a spoon so its submerged a little all the way around. Put it in the fridge overnight. Next morning remove cheese cloth, which takes most of the coagulated and chilled fat with it. Run through clean folded cheese cloth in ...


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