35

The initial heating of the milk, besides denaturing proteins to improve the texture, also pasteurizes the milk. The culture needs to be added in a high enough concentration to crowd out harmful bacteria that might exist. That said, if your tools or containers are dirty or if your starter is dead, or you don't add enough starter, your yogurt can grow ...


17

Note that the milk you take out of the fridge has been sterilised (UHT or pasteurisation) - it doesn't have any bacteria (etc.)[1]. It also isn't very acidic or salty. This makes it a wonderful breeding ground for anything that can get in - there's no competition. Yoghurt (and cheese, and varieties of ham and salami, and...) is full of a bacterial cultures ...


10

So, fermentation is complicated, and the answer to this question really depends on multiple factors. You're particularly interested in the role of sugar vs. salt, not lactobacillus vs. yeast. The simple answer to that question is that lactobacilli are salt-tolerant, while yeast is much less so. So adding salt gives the lactobacilli a headstart in converting ...


7

There is no emergency, you have a healthy, active dough. You can punch it down as much as you like, remember that with pizza dough you are going to knock a load of air out when you make your pizza bases. You can keep it in the fridge until tomorrow, it should slow down as it starts to exhaust the available sugars. If you find things still going a bit too ...


7

I don't have a completely definitive answer. However generally, fermentation produces lactic acid which inhibits the growth of harmful bacteria, which is why it is a successful food preservation method. The yeast and bacteria that are responsible for the fermentation are often naturally occurring on many raw foods. For example with lacto-fermented ...


7

You can eat kimchi at any point. More fermentation/time simply means more funk. It is more likely that things are floating, your only risk is mold forming on the surface. You can add a weight of some sort to keep the exposed ingredients under the liquid, but if you are going to keep them sealed like that, mold formation is less likely, unless you remove ...


5

First, as noted in Sneffel's answer, "real" kimchi is eaten at a variety of fermentation levels. It is possible the fermentation would resume in store-bought kimchi, but only if it is raw and unpasteurized. A lot of store-bought kimchi is pasteurized (depending on where you buy it), which would kill off the bacteria that would typically be used for ...


5

The question may be conflating two different things. First, let's be clear about what yogurt is: the word traditionally refers to a milk product produced by fermentation with some lactic acid bacteria strains. (The exact strains of bacteria may vary depending on the culture and method, though the word "yogurt" tends to be restricted to thermophilic ...


5

Well, Sandor Ellix Katz writes in The Art of Fermentation that some mould on the top is not a problem, you can scrape it away. But for me, this seems too much, I would not eat it. From what I see on your picture, your problem might be, that the kraut is not covered with liquid. For fermentation you need anaerobic conditions, meaning that the kraut is not ...


5

It depends on the temperature of your room, but you may still have enough left alive to save it. Is it still bubbling at all? You should throw most of it away and feed it and see if it changes and bubbles in the next few hours. I'd try keeping just a few tablespoons (maybe 100g of the starter, throwing the rest away) and add 500g of flour and 500g of 75°F ...


4

So first off, when making yogurt hygiene is the single most important factor to successfully make yogurt without giving yourself food poisoning. Your statement about having never had a problem and about cultured yogurt never going off concerns me that your luck will make you cocky about it. inoculation with a known culture helps by prepopulating your yogurt ...


4

I don't know that I can give a definitive answer about safety, knowing little about how clean your apparatus was to begin with, how exactly you have it set up (container type, how you are "burping," etc.). Most importantly, I don't know what recipe you used and whether it was verified as safe through a scientific process.[*See note] All of that said, your ...


4

The optimal time to use your starter is at peak activity. This could range from a couple of hours after feeding to 12 hours after feeding, depending of conditions. The top should have a slight dome, it should be bubbly...just before it begins to settle back down.


4

Yes, as far as personal use is concerned, but it would not be recommended by food safety professionals. I'd suggest instead cutting out a small piece of the mother and making sure that it is completely clear of eggs, or you'll repeat the experience even with washing. Vinegar is known to inhibit bacterial growth across a wide range of foodbourne bacteria (...


4

There are differences in base ingredients, as well as in the method used for production. The production of cream cheese starts with milk (or a mixture of milk and cream), which is curdled after which the whey is removed. Typically, rennet or acid are used to curdle the milk, so that one can separate the whey from the curds. Cream cheese can be fermented ...


4

Do not EVER refrigerate a kombucha scoby, as this will weaken several of the bugs comprising it and make it more susceptible to mold. You can actually just let it keep going past 10-14 days. The tea will continue to acidify and the scoby will be happy hanging out in it. Just leave it where it won't be disturbed, as always. Here's an article which talks about ...


3

There certainly are chemical differences between apples and commercially purchased apple juice, but it's impossible to tell what they are, they are trade secrets. Apple juice bought in stores is not "apples squeezed then bottled", such a juice would become unappetizing before it was transported out of the factory. Juices are high tech products - "100% ...


3

You don't need to bury it. Just leave it, sealed, on your counter for a few days. A couple of notes: the kimchi you are getting is "real kimchi". Kimchi is eaten at a variety of maturity levels, anywhere from a few hours to a month or more. (A year would be entirely too long.) Some Korean families would make their own kimchi; others would buy it. And it ...


3

OK, 'recipe requests' are off topic here, but as a guide to searching… There are thousands of 'British' chefs, whose ancestry is not British. If you look for a recipe on a site ending with .co.uk [or .de or .dk or .se or anywhere except .in] rather than .com then you are likely to find one who's ancestry is 'Indian' but whose upbringing is 'Western'. To ...


3

First, about the holding time: It is a safety feature. It is meant to ensure that the number of non-culturing organisms that survive is so low that the culturing organisms can overtake them and create a colony of their own, without pathogens. If you reduce it, sometimes nothing will happen, and sometimes you will get a dangerously high growth of pathogenic ...


3

From my research, the problem with fermenting nattō at lower temperatures is that it doesn’t inhibit the growth of other bacteria which can either inhibit the growth of the target bacteria, bactilis subtilis, or potentially introduce and incubate pathogenic bacteria which can harm your health. Natto bacteria are very comfortable with high temperatures and ...


3

Accidental fermentation is never safe. You have bacteria growing in your food, and you don't know which bacteria they are. Fermentation is only safe if you use a process which has been tested to only allow the growth of benign bacteria. The containers were all sterilized with bleach, produce was washed and water was boiled This is irrelevant. It is ...


3

Fermented Fruits and Vegetables: A Global Perspective appears to be a good document. This chapter contains some information that will be helpful for you. In section 5.6.3, it states: At the highest concentrations of salt (about 60o salometer) the lactic fermentation ceases to function and if any acid is detected during brine storage it is acetic acid, ...


2

I have been told that by taking a plastic bag and turning it inside out (to get a surface which is cleaner and presumably there shouldn't be mold spores on the inside of a new bag), fill it with water and place on the top of the ferment to keep it anaerobic. The gases can escape around the edges of the bag but oxygen entering should be minimal. Hope that ...


2

Pasteurization to make it shelf stable is simple. Just heat the mixture stirring constantly at 180F for 10 minutes, then immediately bottle in sterilized containers. This stops the fermentation and minimizes any chance that your sauce could ever make anyone sick, assuming you fermented it long enough to get down to something like 4.0 acidity on your ph ...


2

Sandor Katz's Art of Fermentation has a recipe for douchi (link). Soybeans (yellow or black) are soaked, cooked until soft, cooled, inoculated with Aspergillus spores or mixed mold cultures, and incubated around 80–90°F/27–32°C for about 72 hours, until the mold on the beans turns green, indicating sporulation. In contrast to the hamanatto method ...


2

Depends on the beer. In Germany we a beer called "Weißbier" or "Hefeweizen" which you can actually use for baking. The recipe 100ml "Hefeweizen" 15g flour 10g sugar => mix it => after 20h you have the equivalent of 25g yeast


2

Not sure if I should edit the question or add a new answer (comment space was to short for this). I was able to find an interesting website (https://dairyprocessinghandbook.com/chapter/fermented-milk-products) that covers all aspects of yoghurt production and I found this section.... HEAT TREATMENT The milk is heat treated before being inoculated with the ...


2

Probably, two considerations; Depending on how much you cooked it and how you drain it it may mess-up the salt balance. And, I started my kruat with a little bakers yeast and sugar so did not rely on natural yeast , because you have killed the natural yeast you may need something to start it. I understand that the yeast produce lactic acid in homemade while ...


2

After the first rise, you can split your dough into smaller portions and let it rise again in the fridge. Just don't forget to cover with oiled plastic wrap or a damp towel to avoid drying out.


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