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27

Throw it away, it's not worth risking health issues over such a cheap staple. While the flour was originally dry, the pork juice introduced moisture into it, providing a much better breeding ground for bacteria. Your concern should not be (just) the bacteria, but also the much hardier toxins that they produce--those could easily give you food poisoning, and ...


23

Yes, of course you can keep flour in the freezer. For whole wheat flour, which is susceptible to rancidity due to the fat from the whole grain being included, it is even recommended. For white flour, according to the University of Nebraska Extension in Lancaster County (emphasis added): For longer storage, keep white flours in the refrigerator in an ...


21

I think you will be disappointed. While a fantastic protein source, cricket flour does not contain the gluten proteins that make bread what it is. Therefore, bread made with cricket flour must get its structure somewhere else. The majority of recipes I can find are quickbreads which get their structure from added eggs blown up with baking soda. Dense and ...


21

You should be fine, as long as you mix it in thoroughly. Flouring the beef and browning is a very common first step, so there is maybe some in there already? Any extra flour to thicken needs some time to cook or it will make the gravy feel grainy. Stir, stir, stir, and if you see any lumps, take them out. Be careful that this does not over-thicken the ...


21

I have never made these, but this is what I observe from comparing your recipe to the most readily found online ones: Your mix is dry. Other recipes tend to have up to twice as much liquid as yours, by proportion to the flour. Your mix has no egg. Every recipe I found included egg, in quantities ranging from 1 egg per 1 cup flour to 1 egg per 1/2 cup flour. ...


18

What do we look in a pizza dough? There are many styles of pizza: Italian Vera Pizza Napoletana, Chicago style, ... All of them have something in common in their dough: it should be stretched without tearing, and shouldn't stretch back. Also, some recipes call for long fermentation times: 6, 9 or more hours at room temperature. With this you get a more ...


16

No, flour and starch are very different things. Starch is a molecule consisting of a chain of glucose rings. It is one of the main ways plants store energy. In practice, it is extracted from many different grains and tubers such as potato, wheat, tapioca and corn. Flour is a food ingredient made from milling a grain very finely, and frequently also ...


16

It doesn't go into the meat, it soaks up water and becomes a slurry. The slurry is transparent, so you don't see it. If you fry it as it is, you won't prevent spraying and sticking the same way it would have been possible with a dry flour layer. If you roll it again, you will have these effects again, plus slightly more heat buffering because of the double ...


14

The reason flour is in paper bag (either 1kg/2lbs bags from supermarkets, or 25kg for bakeries) is to let it "breath": to get it oxidized. If you see an old (vintage) bag it's made of a net that lets a lot of air to get in. Today those bags are not used because it also allows bugs to get in. When wheat grains are just milled, the flour is not good enough: ...


13

For 1 cup self-raising flour, add 1½ tsp baking powder+ ¼ tsp salt to 1 cup all purpose flour. (http://www.joyofbaking.com/IngredientSubstitution.html) Edit: Calculation added by Sebbidychef: According to http://www.jsward.com/cooking/conversion.shtml 1 cup of un-sifted all-purpose flour is equal to 120g. Therefore 1000 divided by 120 is 8.3 recurring (...


13

Since you ask about other tools, I recommend avoiding the mixer altogether and instead grate frozen butter into the flour. If you have a food processor you can use the coarsest grating blade--chilling the bowl and grater first will help keep the butter cold will help--but it goes quickly by hand with a coarse grater. The key is to get the butter distributed ...


12

Short answer, yes provided you emphasize the airtightness of your storage container. I often trust the wisdom espoused on the forums of King Arthur Flour's website, and specifically this topic on freezing flour. All commenters who report personal anecdotes with freezing flour report positive ones. The one note that should be made is that self-rising ...


12

It is possible, whether it fits your definition of easily is questionable, though. Whole grain flour is made by grinding whole wheat/rye/... berries until you get a fine flour, a technique used since the neolithic age. The method that is still in use today is basically "rubbing the grains between a firm base stone and a moving upper stone", either shaped ...


11

The main things that can go bad with flour, assuming it is properly stored are: Rancidity Insect infestation If you don't see any insects, and it still smells good, you should feel free to use it. If it smells off or nasty—trust me, your nose will tell you—then you will want to discard it. The actual date on the bag is only a guideline.


11

Roux Method The advantages of the roux method: It can be prepared in advance The raw flour taste is cooked out when the roux is prepared, so the sauce is ready as soon as it is thickened; this also makes it easier to add more roux to adjust the thickness of the sauce. It actually requires less supervision. You are actually being overly fussy with your ...


11

Yes, it would be reading too much. ADM is a food processing company, and it operates a number of mills. King Arthur doesn't mill its own flour (and I assume neither does Aldi). The commodity wheat market in the U.S. tends to move huge amounts of wheat to centralized mills, where it is then packaged (and perhaps branded). That doesn't mean branding means ...


10

A roux is a stable mixture (an emulsion) of fat and water held together by an emulsifier such as starch. So you could try any number of flours from grains that contain starch such as potato, rice, barley, buckwheat, etc. As far as the Maillard Reaction taste and color that you'd like to substitude, potato and barley (IMO) are the better bets. The note on ...


10

You already have mentioned the primary reason for adding the flour: to thicken the chowder. The author of this particular recipe has added it to the recipe while you are sauteeing the aromatics, I infer. This creates, in essence, a quick roux, cooking some of the raw taste out of the flour, and helping ensure that you will not get lumps. You could ...


10

The skin forms because water evaporates from the surface of the dough. The middle doesn't dry out because the drier dough skin is less porous, and so the rate of moisture loss slows down as the skin forms. It's perfectly okay to eat it, it's just the same dough but drier. Whether it is pleasant to eat is another matter of course. It won't become unsafe ...


9

You're alluding to the correct answer: running it through several times basically kneads the dough and develops gluten. Gluten provides strength to dough. It forms a flexible, elastic 'net' (the 'net' portion isn't really relevant to pasta dough though) , allowing it to stretch more and is much, much less brittle. Even better, would be to put it through ...


9

Typically, you go for 1 tbsp flour, 1 tbsp butter for each cup of liquid. You may have to adjust slightly, but that's a good starting point. After the quantity of roux, the next factor to thickening strength is cooking time. The longer you cook the roux, and consequently, how dark it gets, the less thick the final result will be for a given quantity of ...


9

00 is extra-fine flour, the most refined grade. Here's a useful page for more about the old flour grading system. Other than pasta I use it for thickening sauces, and I sometimes make pizza dough with it, although I can't tell the difference between using 00 and good quality bread flour. I'd use 00 for Gnocci certainly as the chefs do, but most home cooks ...


9

Many, many things happen when flour flour is mixed into batter. From your description, though, it sounds like you are interested in what leads to and relieves clumping. When water (whether it is just plain water, in milk, in juice, or whatever) and flour are mixed, the water will begin to expand and penetrate the starch granules in the flour. The starch ...


9

Normally no problem. But check if there is flour worms in the flour. To do so, follow these steps: Fill up a plain glass with flour. Press together the flour, so you get a flat / hard surface, slightly below the rim of the glass. Let the jar stand in a bright and warm spot for about 1-2 hours. If you have flour worms, some very small larvae (less than 1 ...


9

The paddle should be used for this. You'll want to do it on a lower speed, probably no higher than 2 or 3. You'll have problems with the flour flying up before you have trouble with the butter melting. It will also help to chop the butter up some before putting it in.


9

Yes, and it is very easy. I do it all the time. You only need a very simple calculation. You don't even have to be precise. If you do want precision, you will have to find out 1) how much of your flour protein is gluten, 2) how much of your "vital wheat gluten" is gluten, and 3) how much gluten content you need for your recipe. Then use a simple rule-of-...


9

Thanks to rumtscho for pointing me in the right direction, I came up with a formula that'll accomplish the math described by rumtscho and cranbo on thefreshloaf.com: targetPercentProtein = (flourPercentProtein * x) + (vitalGlutenPercentProtein * y) (100 - targetPercentProtein) = ((100 - flourPercentProtein) * x) + ((100 - ...


9

Wheat and (other grains) contains the two protein classes gliadin and glutenin, which together can form the composite protein gluten. This process requires water and is influenced by a) the amount of water available and b) the mechanical process of kneading. Thus a strong gluten network (as desired in bread baking) is acchieved by either dilligent ...


9

No. Not at all. Baking soda is a leavening agent. Together with baking powder it gives your cake lift and airiness. Bread flour is just flour with a higher protein content. If anything, it will make your cake more dense (though not in such small quantities as you would have for baking soda). If a recipe calls for both baking soda and baking powder, the ...


9

Pasta can be made from many types of flour. Often, this is predicated on style of pasta or the dish. 100% AP flour will be just fine for your ravioli. I use it often when making fresh pasta. Substituting the AP flour for the semolina might impact the hydration. I would hold off on the water at first. If the dough feels too dry, add water a tablespoon ...


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