4

As you suggest, most nougat recipes require the sugar syrup to be brought to specific temperatures (typically "hard ball" or "soft crack" stage, see for example this page for details of the stages of cooking sugar). By that time, any water that you started out with (in your case in the form of rose water) has boiled off. Simply bringing the mixture up to a ...


2

After the clarifying comments, I think the question now boils down to reading the nutrition table and to the Italian classification of flour, in particular, durum since it's the most used for the pasta production. I can refer to the table on the Italian Wikipedia, where it's compared with the US classification. https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farina#...


1

Your starter is drying out. Don't keep it in the oven with the light on. It's been too warm. Depending on your comfortable room temperature, you should be able to leave it on a kitchen counter top. You should have a lid or other covering on it, too.


1

You can remove any salt like this by diffusion/osmosis - basically by soaking with multiple changes of water over a period of time. This technique is used to make preserved salted-fish edible. How long you need to do this for will depend on the thickness of the fish and the concentration of the salt. You can determine this empirically by experimenting, but ...


1

I had this problem while steaming lobsters where the whole point is to keep the lid on. I solved it by sprinkling black pepper which is buoyant over the surface of the foam. The pepper did not effect the flavor in this case. After doing this the foam was kept to a minimum whiles still retaining efficient steam. Hope this helps.


1

You can try roasting in two steps: "Hot air roasting for almonds can be optimized by applying a two-step roasting process. The first step uses an intermediate temperature to stabilize the nut microstructure, and the second step uses a higher temperature to generate the desired flavor and color." Roast at a lower temperature for a longer period of time to ...


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