56

Your egg whites were cooked by the alcohol in the extract. Cooked, in this case, means denaturing, which means unfolding the protein molecules. There are many ways to denature proteins. Acid, such as vinegar, will denature egg proteins, which is why some people suggest adding vinegar to the water to poach an egg (a practice I disagree with, but that's ...


51

Looking up Shreddies, I found this site. It lists, in the ingredients Whole Grain Wheat (96%), Sugar, Invert Sugar Syrup, Barley Malt Extract, Salt, Molasses, Vitamins and Minerals (Niacin, Iron, Pantothenic Acid, Folic Acid, Vitamin B6, Riboflavin) There is no percentage for the sugar in the ingredients list. And the nutritional information says ...


37

I suspect that 96g of whole grain goes into the recipe for 100g, along with 13g of sugar and some salt, vitamins, and flavouring ingredients. At that point there's at least 109g. Then it's formed and cooked, driving off at least 9g of water, getting down to 100g. I don't know in what form the whole wheat is added, but whole wheat flour has more than 20% ...


25

Yes, kneading develops gluten. Specifically, the gliadin and glutenin proteins in flour form gluten when mixed together with water. It's common, but inaccurate (and confusing I think) to refer to gliadin and glutenin as gluten. For more about the chemistry of how gluten develops see the paragraph on 'bread products' in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gluten.


19

Hydration (adding water) is the main reason for the gluten development. Kneading on the other hand, not only helps hydration by effectively mixing the contents but also causes cross-links of gluten webs forming, thus giving the dough (and eventually the baked product) the chewy texture.


17

A couple things for clarification. First, some have speculated that the percentages do not refer to true percentages. Assuming this is UK labeling, as in the link rumtscho noted, the 96% per UK regulations must refer to the amount per 100 grams of the product by weight (from 96.2 grams of whole wheat). It turns out I was wrong about this in some cases. ...


10

So, fermentation is complicated, and the answer to this question really depends on multiple factors. You're particularly interested in the role of sugar vs. salt, not lactobacillus vs. yeast. The simple answer to that question is that lactobacilli are salt-tolerant, while yeast is much less so. So adding salt gives the lactobacilli a headstart in converting ...


9

Shelf-stable wet foods in cans, jars, plastic pouches, and the like are generally sterilized by heating them under pressure, to the point where literally every microorganism that might be inside dies. The containers need to remain sealed to maintain the sterility -- verifying the seal is the purpose of the little "pops up" button on the top of jars which are ...


8

I often come across bread labeled "100 percent whole wheat." I've always taken this to mean that the grain is 100 percent whole wheat, rather than that whole wheat constitutes 100 percent of the ingredients. Obviously there are other ingredients in bread, like salt, yeast, and water. I suspect that a similar thing is going on with this cereal. As you point ...


8

40-140F is the danger zone of high growth rate for bacteria. 60-120F is the extremely high zone. 55C is only 131F and not even out of the high growth rate area, 60C it at the edge right at 140. Outside of the high growth area bacteria growth is not zero, it is only much lower and there is not a magic switch that instantly kills all bacteria when you hit ...


8

The egg whites contain proteins that depend on water to stay soluble. The peppermint extract is no doubt alcohol based. Thus the alcohol denatured the proteins. However there isn't enough alcohol to denature all the egg white, it will just denature the egg white that it first comes into contact with. After that the water in the egg whites dilutes the alcohol....


8

Normally, acids will turn broccoli a dull grayish color, and I don't recommend adding the lemon juice until right before you serve. For one thing the lemon juice will lose its flavor when cooked. Acids affect many, many foods when cooked — some for good and some for bad, so you do need to be careful when you add it. For example, acids added to beans before ...


8

Aquafaba in cooking generally refers to chickpea aquafaba, but the term generally applies to the liquid in which any legume seeds have been cooked. It contains starches and proteins which allow it to foam when whipped. I have seen aquafaba mostly used for foams in cooking, but it can serve as a replacement for egg whites in many recipes. Adding cream of ...


6

The lay person's procedure is: Take your flour and weigh a sample, then wash away the starch and weigh the sample. Here is a video showing a procedure that you can do at home. I would suggest doing this procedure with a control sample (a flour where you know the protein content to determine your accuracy) before doing with your target sample. https://www....


5

In addition to @dlb's answer - there are a huge range of bacteria present in our food sources - many of these are capable of growing at higher temperatures than normal food safety requirements reach. The reason it is still safe to eat food at this point, is that the stomach and intestines are pretty good at breaking down most bacteria, so that they don't ...


5

cavitation noise - The noise produced in a liquid by the collapse of bubbles that have been created by cavitation.


4

Rhubarb pie - halve the sugar & don't use that wimpy pink stuff that's forced in greenhouses, get the big old fat green stalks about an inch thick that grow naturally, for a much stronger hit. If that's not enough, try adding sloe berries… or just eat the rhubarb raw, or dipped in lemon & vinegar. Ahh… childhood. We used to grow it in the back ...


4

As you suggest, most nougat recipes require the sugar syrup to be brought to specific temperatures (typically "hard ball" or "soft crack" stage, see for example this page for details of the stages of cooking sugar). By that time, any water that you started out with (in your case in the form of rose water) has boiled off. Simply bringing the mixture up to a ...


3

There is no way at all to do that. If you made up your own recipe, pressure canning is out of the question. It is only safe for recipes which have been developed and tested with pressure canning in mind. Water bath canning is generally also only advised with recipes which have been developed and tested for canning, in order to ensure that you have both ...


3

It seems to me that Ratio meets your needs: Ratio: The Simple Codes Behind the Craft of Everyday Cooking Paperback – Sep 7 2010 by Michael Ruhlman (Author) Ratios are the simple proportions of one ingredient to another. Biscuit dough is 3:1:2—or 3 parts flour, 1 part fat, and 2 parts liquid. This ratio is the beginning of many variations, and ...


3

You'll probably never be able to divorce the problems with beef from what you love about it. The suggestions below may help, but in general "replacing" beef is probably more work than just eating other stuff. If you find that nothing quite romances your tastebuds the way beef does, try tripling the amount of garlic, cumin, soy-sauce or whatever other spaces ...


3

If you are loving cows in particular, because they are nice and give us milk, you could substitute some other hooved animal. I cannot really tell the difference between farmed bison and beef. You can get bison meat in a lot of grocery stores now. Venison or elk can be ordered from specialty groceries and also have that serious meat taste. Or maybe you ...


3

The most likely answer here is that the flavor compounds either degrade (oxidize) or evaporate over time in an opened container. Refrigeration is unlikely to change this a lot as the rate of evaporation is dependent on the diffusion gradient A large gradient = faster diffusion, which would be determined by the head-space in the opened bottle. Oxidation ...


3

According to Putting Foods By, 25th ed. (1982), you can fill tomato jars with just hot boiled tomato juice rather than requiring additional acid, and then pressure-can them: 10lbs pressure / 40 minutes for skinned whole tomatoes 10lbs pressure / 15 minutes for sliced or diced tomatoes ... with some adjustments depending on jar size. However, their ...


3

Cream itself is a colloid made up of butterfat & water. That colloid is uniquely suited to have the air incorporated to create whipped cream. The chemistry of whipping cream is more complex than just "fat + air = whipped cream". If you're trying to whip olive oil or lard into "whipped cream" then each fat will have some unique additional steps to make ...


3

It will be fine. It may be a bit more sour tasting than usual, but it will not be unsafe.


3

I use Calcium hydroxide, (pickling lime, Cal, slaked lime), to raise the pH of my tomato sauces. It does not take much, and you don't get that nasty flavor that comes with using sodium bicarbonate. You can find the stuff in the canning aisle in a U.S. grocery store. Mexican and Asian stores also usually carry it. The Latinos use Cal to nixtamalize corn ...


3

This article estimates 20 billion viable yeast cells per gram of dried yeast. A yeast package is about 7 grams total. The granule size will vary from brand to brand. Even within a packet, granule size is not completely uniform. To get the estimate, you'd need to weigh out a sample (say 1g or 0.1g), count the number of granules in that sample, then do the ...


3

I would suggest that a roux is a hydrocolloid.


3

As a 4 carbon sugar alcohol, erythritol lacks both strongly acid and strongly basic groups. pH of a 1 molar solution will run around 7. It is not going to affect the pH of a solution when you add erythritol. It will affect osmolarity, and water activity but those are different properties.


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible