54

"Cooking" is often a chemical process. Denaturing proteins, gelatinization, causing chemical reactions like browning, or even causing state changes like evaporation. In many cases for these reactions to happen, we need to overheat the food. (Cook it and let it rest to cool off back down to undo some of the changes that were made and/or bring it back down ...


51

Looking up Shreddies, I found this site. It lists, in the ingredients Whole Grain Wheat (96%), Sugar, Invert Sugar Syrup, Barley Malt Extract, Salt, Molasses, Vitamins and Minerals (Niacin, Iron, Pantothenic Acid, Folic Acid, Vitamin B6, Riboflavin) There is no percentage for the sugar in the ingredients list. And the nutritional information says ...


37

I suspect that 96g of whole grain goes into the recipe for 100g, along with 13g of sugar and some salt, vitamins, and flavouring ingredients. At that point there's at least 109g. Then it's formed and cooked, driving off at least 9g of water, getting down to 100g. I don't know in what form the whole wheat is added, but whole wheat flour has more than 20% ...


34

This link explains the science behind what is known as "the mother sauce", béchamel. Essentially, the steps of first creating a roux, then adding cold milk, are about manipulating the glucose chains in the flour. Done correctly, the sauce is smooth and flavorful. Done incorrectly and you have a grainy mixture that tastes of raw flour. @David Richerby's ...


17

A couple things for clarification. First, some have speculated that the percentages do not refer to true percentages. Assuming this is UK labeling, as in the link rumtscho noted, the 96% per UK regulations must refer to the amount per 100 grams of the product by weight (from 96.2 grams of whole wheat). It turns out I was wrong about this in some cases. ...


16

If it's unopened it will stay perfectly fine, cold or warm, until the Best Before date printed on it. It doesn't need refrigerating until opened - unless, of course, you want to drink it cold ;)


14

Flour has to be cooked in any kind of fat, butter or oil to remove the rawness of the flour. If you don't roast and put all the ingredients straightway and cook for longer time, it would still work, but in that case you'll have to cook for bit longer and reduce the ratio of flour. Otherwise the sauce will thicken up and it would taste raw as it wasn't cooked....


11

Flour and cornmeal are well known to clump when added cold to boiling water. Such clumps arise when starch molecules unball and forming a mesh that traps other starch molecules, preventing them from hydrolysing in the same way. Hence lumpy gravy and sauces. For oatmeal I've observed similar clumping behaviour, but not to the same extent. Anyway I suspect ...


10

As a chemist this makes the hair on the back of my neck stand up. One cardinal rule in a chemistry lab is not to eat or drink in the lab. So you are not going to instantly die, nor will you grow another ear, from have cleaning supplies near food items, but to me it is a really bad idea. The cleaning supplies should be stored in a separate location. Under the ...


10

Then the explanation for the flour is that the water and flour interact to produce gluten that then gives the cake its structure. Your confusion is well-founded, because gluten is required to form the structure of cake is too strong of a premise. Gluten can be a primary contributor to the structure of a cake, as in a wacky cake, but it is not required. ...


10

I will disagree with the other answer for one simple reason -- the fewer steps taken en masse, the lower the risk. Now of course, this assumes that you're correctly cleaning your grinder, but because you're only grinding one chunk, or maybe a few chunks of meat, you only have to worry if those chunks of meat had contamination. For a larger operation, every ...


10

Capsaicin, the chemical that makes peppers spicy, activates a sensory receptor which can also be activated by heat. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capsaicin#Mechanism_of_action) That means that when a food is spicy and hot, you feel both types of heat using the same sense! When the food has cooled and you're not feeling the heat (temperature) any more, it ...


10

The CO2 would have to actually leave the bottle for the drink to go flat, and that's no more likely than when you store it at constant temperature. I often do this anyway as I'm short of fridge space and don't drink many fizzy drinks, and I've never had a problem


10

Making tofu for mass production and consumption and making tofu at home generally follow the same procedures. Soybeans are soaked, ground, and cooked. The resulting "milk" is separated from the soilds. Then a coagulant is added (either salts, acids, or enzymes depending on producer and type of tofu). Finally, the tofu is pressed. The one difference ...


9

Very simply; freezing breaks the cell walls. As ice takes up more space than water, as the vegetables freeze all the cells rupture. Once defrosted, each cell is then little more than a slowly-leaking bag of nutrient, exposed to the open air. Whether or not any bacteria gets in & starts to breed is almost irrelevant by this time, as your 'leaky bag' is ...


9

It's very difficult to just mix flour with a liquid. It will set to the bottom of the sauce pan and clump when heated, unless you stir constantly. This is why you make a roux first, combining the flour with some kind of fat. You could just mix flour with cold butter until well combined and add it to hot liquid such as milk and it would thicken just fine (I ...


9

So, fermentation is complicated, and the answer to this question really depends on multiple factors. You're particularly interested in the role of sugar vs. salt, not lactobacillus vs. yeast. The simple answer to that question is that lactobacilli are salt-tolerant, while yeast is much less so. So adding salt gives the lactobacilli a headstart in converting ...


8

No, it doesn't matter who makes the ground beef. The previous "outside" contaiminates all exposed surfaces in the grinder. So you get no "free pass" for grinding it yourself. It is also not related to the cut of beef. They are all exposed to the same environment in the butcher shop, sluiced with the same water, etc., and they are all at the same level of ...


8

I often come across bread labeled "100 percent whole wheat." I've always taken this to mean that the grain is 100 percent whole wheat, rather than that whole wheat constitutes 100 percent of the ingredients. Obviously there are other ingredients in bread, like salt, yeast, and water. I suspect that a similar thing is going on with this cereal. As you point ...


6

Rotting occurs as cells break down and autolyse together with other chemical reactions and aided by microbial (fungal and bacteria) contamination. It is not initiated by pathogens, but is rather a normal cause of events. Note that ripening (i.e., the earliest stage of rot) and fermentation (e.g., beer and kimchi) are related processes performed under ...


6

I would not change the amount. Tomato products are graded as following: pureed tomatoes (passata di pomodoro), up to 10% dry mass tomato paste (concentrato di pomodoro) single, 14 to 22% dry mass tomato paste double, 28 to 30% dry mass tomato paste triple, 36 to 40% dry mass. These are German numbers. Other countries use somewhat different ...


6

This is because when you're cooking some foods you're not just heating it up. A lot of foods are boiled, not because they need to be heated up, but because they need to absorb water. We just boil the water because that makes the hydration go a lot faster (the high temperature is also needed to break down some of the starches, for more info, see here). With ...


6

This layer just means some milk proteins have cooked onto the bottom of the pan, and says nothing at all about the age or condition of the milk. It's more likely when you boil a smaller quantity due to the more rapid heating. During can help avoid this. However repeated heating and cooling isn't generally a good idea. With milk you can get away with it but ...


5

As far as I can see, phytohaemagglutinin should be mostly present in red kidney beans or fava beans. (from wikipedia and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3153292/) I looked at Tolerant Food product list on their web site and they only use lentils (red and green) and Chickpea products. So, you should be good; but in any cases, if you feel unsafe,...


5

You can substitute sugar straight over for glucose but you need to increase the wet ingredients or decrease the dry ingredients as glucose absorbs more liquids than regular sugar. Take a look at this article and this one! But mixing sugar and glucose is done in baking for the texture! In pretty much every other regard when it comes to cooking/baking, ...


4

Pathogens are everywhere in the environment - in the field where the fruit grows, in the supply chain, and in your own kitchen. The only thing the linked article says is that, when the soil is contaminated, the human-pathogen bacteria don't travel up the roots into the fruit. But you still have pathogens on the surface. Also, you seem to be throwing plant ...


4

Here is a quick answer: Fructose: Sweetness of Fructose depends on temperature: at lower temperatures (i.e. ice-cream) is sweeter. at higher temperatures (i.e. hot coffee or tee) is less sweet Fructose is always sweeter than glucose Amount of calories doesn't change: cal of 1g of fructose equals cal of 1g of glucose Here's a table: SUGAR | ...


4

Just wanted to state in addendum to all the comments and answers already given, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, and calcium sulfate are all classified as GRAS per the FDA.


4

I'll add an answer that doesn't address your question directly, but does address the underlying concern: If patrons regularly discard part of the dish, you should ask why. With hard boiled eggs cooked in a large scale cafeteria kitchen it's easy to overcook the eggs, just leaving them in the water for hours on end. This results in a greyish, crumbly and ...


4

Rhubarb pie - halve the sugar & don't use that wimpy pink stuff that's forced in greenhouses, get the big old fat green stalks about an inch thick that grow naturally, for a much stronger hit. If that's not enough, try adding sloe berries… or just eat the rhubarb raw, or dipped in lemon & vinegar. Ahh… childhood. We used to grow it in the back ...


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