39

There are a few options: Most bread machines have an option to knead/mix only - you can then take the dough out and shape and bake as you would if you were doing things by hand. You can also get "dough hooks" for most stand mixers (e.g. Kenwood or Kitchenaid), these are a bent arm or corkscrew sort of shape designed to knead the dough, and are what is ...


26

I don't think that it is really necessary to use your knuckles. Rather, there are ways to knead dough well, and ways to knead dough badly. I have seen ineffective people pinching the dough, or turning it between their hands, or other strange motions, which in a cargo-cult way resemble actual kneading, but don't do anything useful. My guess is that whoever ...


15

I found that autolysing the dough before kneading reduces necessary kneading time drastically. I do the following: mix flour with water with spoon (just coarse, so that no flour stays dry) let it sit around an hour mix in the sourdough, short kneading mix in the salt, short kneading (it should not stick to the bowl anymore at this point) Also, if you make ...


12

This may not be the primary reason but I have hot hands and my knuckles are noticeably cooler than my palms or even the insides of my fingers. It's less of an issue with dough than with pastry but I still find that kneading with my palms makes the dough sticky compared to using my knuckles.


11

You didn't say what kind of dough you are thinking about, so I'll try to give a bit of an overview first: With most doughs, the way you handle it will influence the development of gluten. Roughly stated: more handling/stretching equals more/longer strands and more density. Type 1: Pie crust, shortbread, bisquits etc. You want to avoid excessive development ...


11

Time and stretching will do the trick as well. Full on kneading or using a mixer is not necessarily required. There are other techniques, such as "stretch and fold" or "slap and fold", which are generally used with high hydration dough. Here is one example of a no-knead bread. Also, This guy is a master...if I recall correctly, none of his recipes use a ...


10

This is a wonderful occasion for a cold rise! There are two main methods to prepare yeast doughs, warm or cold. The first is probably what you are familiar with - lukewarm liquid, a cozy spot for the dough and after one or two hours your dough is ready for the oven. The second is actually what many bakers prefer: A dough with a very small amount of yeast is ...


9

Yes it should - sort of. Your observation is right on point, a very rich dough will tear more easily. (I did the same experiment once myself.) But it will still show some characteristics of the windowpane test: it will stretch smoothly and the "pane" should be very even, not show streaks of thicker and thinner areas. Note that the temperature of your ...


8

I think the real answer is this: cutting into the loaf too soon is the problem. When it's straight out of the oven it's still very moist and soft inside. A bread knife hooks tiny bits of the bread and squishes them together into beads because it's still very moist and malleable until it's had a chance to cool properly. Once it's cooled, the bread knife will ...


7

Both messes up the ratio, as you said, so you shouldn't use anything during kneading. You only need to use a little bit of something during shaping. With some pastries, the shaping is extensive and you get lots of the smoother worked into the dough; this is expected and desired (e.g. in strudel sheets). Properly kneaded bread dough does not stick to ...


7

For very high hydration loaves, you want to create your gluten development without adding an excess of flour which would reduce the relative hydration. This video from Italyum Recipes shows the classic stretch, slap and fold method, using a 70% hydration dough. Basically, you lift the entire dough from the work surface, allow it to stretch under its own ...


7

I'd do one or more of a few things: Treat it like the dough in Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day, in which you sprinkle flour on top, then pull off a portion you need, then shape quickly into a ball, developing the outer skin, keeping the freshly floured side out. Chill down the dough, so it's firmer and easier to work with. (and then do #1 while it's ...


6

If you punch down a no-knead loaf, on average, you'll get a more consistent crumb and fewer large holes in the finished loaf.


6

From your comment that the dough does not rise at all, it is almost certain that your yeast is dead. Poor kneading will not cause the dough not to rise. I suggest proofing the instant/active dry yeast in lukewarm water to isolate as many variables as possible. You can even use room-temp water. Add 1/2 teaspoon of sugar to the water, add the yeast, mix ...


6

Adding to the already mentioned, technique similar to those advanced by Hetzberg and Francois in blogs and their 5 Minute Artisan breads require no kneading, in fact most of their recipes and similar ones seem to work better the less you work the dough beyond simple mixing. Not far from G.B.'s advise, you mix the ingredients, I use a dough whisk, like the ...


6

There is a technique called stretch and fold that requires remarkably little active kneading time. The way I do it is: Form the dough into a rough triangle or square. Fold the corners in twice. Flip the dough over and let it rest for a minute or two. Repeat until the dough is kneaded. I'm not entirely sure why it works, but it fully kneads the dough in ...


5

The temperature influences the speed of rising, but to significantly change the dough hardness, you need a very cold temperature. Even if your hands are "cold", they are certainly above air temperature, and firming up dough through coldness is only possible if you use very cold ingredients, below fridge temperature (4 Celsius). It could be kneading ...


5

Edit: I assumed bread dough here, during initial kneading. Seeing Stephie's answer made me remember that "kneading" applies to many more contexts. But please keep my assumption in mind when reading the answer here. Yes, you can knead it with a rolling pin if you want to. You'll have to repeatedly roll it into a flat shape, fold it once or a few times into ...


5

The purpose of kneading is to develop gluten in the dough. Gluten is made of long strands of protein — it makes the dough stretchy, so it can contain the bubbles created by the yeast or sourdough culture, enabling the dough to rise. Therefore, you need to knead before rising. If you knead the dough again after its first rise, you'll destroy many of the ...


5

What kind of whole wheat flour are you using? An organic supermarket near me offers a mill to use on-site, and I once bought a package of wheat and milled it there, to see how bread tastes with unoxidized flour. The roughly milled bran teared my gluten badly, and I had much difficulty getting the dough to perform well. The bread didn't rise well either. ...


5

This is completely normal and actually what you want bread dough to do, the bubbles mean that your yeast is active, and your bread will rise. However, bubbles that are too big can be undesired in your finished product and may actually cause the bread to cook unevenly. I make sure to eliminate all large bubbles during each kneading session. The presence of ...


4

It's most likely (in my opinion) that the air (and subsequently air bubbles) is being introduced into your fondant at the kneading process rather than anything to do with your rolling method or surface used to roll on. Perhaps experiment a little on a more gentle but firm (as opposed to vigorous) kneading method and see if that removes those air bubbles in ...


4

Using old yeast or too much/too little yeast (I assume that using old yeast is the same as using too little yeast?) Instant yeast is pretty well preserved as it's encased in a starch binder, and I've never seen it go bad (6-12 months is the longest I've had a large container of it). Cake yeast lasts only a few weeks (but most grocery stores don't sell it ...


4

A super sticky dough is exactly what you want for pan pizza. Take a look at what Kenji from Serious Eats has to say about pan pizza dough. He uses a super-sticky, no-knead dough, but I bet yours would be fine for this application. I followed Kenji's advice to make this pizza, it was the best pan pizza I've ever had. Using the pan made dealing with the ...


4

I'm new to the site and I wish I could make this a comment, not an answer, but I don't know how. Hand pulled noodles use cake flour with less gluten and baking soda to reduce the gluten even further. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ze2SphqrWyg&feature=g-hist http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nBSTSKY_DQs&feature=g-hist If you are hand kneading, it's ...


4

I agree with previous answers that the stickiness is probably related to the long second proof at room temperature. I know because I often make use of a similar technique, though I use a higher hydration dough. Thus, it's probably close to as sticky as yours, even though I don't proof as long. After a first proof overnight (or for a couple days) in the ...


4

Keeping to the very simple - if the crust is too brown and the interior is not cooked, the oven is too hot. Reduce temperature, increase time (or reduce loaf cross section; thinner loaves cook faster.) Starting hot and turning down after 20 minutes is a common approach. Is the water in the pan boiling off within 15 minutes or so? if not, either remove the ...


4

I'm not familiar with how bread machines even work, so I'm not sure if you mean that you are restarting the cycle and that means that (A) you are just mixing the dough longer, or (B) the dough mixes, then rests, then mixes, then rests, etc. Either way, not a good idea. For scenario (A), you're overworking your gluten. If you do this, it's just as bad as ...


4

The writer is telling you a method for kneading. They can't the skill level of the user. This is from my knowledge not books: Fingers only give 8 points of impression, which is a small area. Fingernails can leave bacteria. Although some modern cooks wear gloves to protect food. Using fingertips can cause injury to fingers nerves. It is a more efficient to ...


3

One thing that will often help is to allow the dough to rest for a while (15 minutes or longer) after mixing and before kneading (cover the dough with plasic wrap). That resting period starts autolysis, the actual absorption of the water by the flour and the beginning of gluten development. That will make the dough less sticky and easier to work with without ...


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