36

I don't see anything in the question that is peculiar to pizza dough. Anything I answer will apply to any kind of yeast-risen, glutenous dough. The goal with any such dough is a well hydrated protein matrix that has been arranged in sheets that will trap the gas produced by yeast. If the yeast is dead it won't be able to produce gas and your bread will be ...


26

I don't think that it is really necessary to use your knuckles. Rather, there are ways to knead dough well, and ways to knead dough badly. I have seen ineffective people pinching the dough, or turning it between their hands, or other strange motions, which in a cargo-cult way resemble actual kneading, but don't do anything useful. My guess is that whoever ...


19

I love making bread. I make it every other day or three. (Also make your own butter it's so easy and tastes great plus less expensive than buying it. You can control the amount of salt.) My suggestion, as most of the reasons have already been very well addressed, is to split your recipe into two batches. Half of it should be cooked straight from its first ...


16

There are several negative effects from over-kneading bread dough: Overheating - if the dough gets too warm, it will ferment too quickly (or over ferment) and will therefore lack flavour. Oxidisation - kneading for too long can cause the flour to oxidise and bleach, again impairing flavour. Breaking down - eventually the molecular bonds of the gluten will ...


12

Cookbooks describe the state as "smooth and elastic" I think this is a reasonable description. When the dough is first mixed it is very wet and sticky. As it is mixed you can see a lot of clumps and heterogeneous textures. As the proteins in the flour mix with water they form gluten and the kneading folds the elastic gluten over itself again and again ...


12

This may not be the primary reason but I have hot hands and my knuckles are noticeably cooler than my palms or even the insides of my fingers. It's less of an issue with dough than with pastry but I still find that kneading with my palms makes the dough sticky compared to using my knuckles.


11

You didn't say what kind of dough you are thinking about, so I'll try to give a bit of an overview first: With most doughs, the way you handle it will influence the development of gluten. Roughly stated: more handling/stretching equals more/longer strands and more density. Type 1: Pie crust, shortbread, bisquits etc. You want to avoid excessive development ...


11

Time and stretching will do the trick as well. Full on kneading or using a mixer is not necessarily required. There are other techniques, such as "stretch and fold" or "slap and fold", which are generally used with high hydration dough. Here is one example of a no-knead bread. Also, This guy is a master...if I recall correctly, none of his recipes use a ...


10

It is also possible to overknead for a specific bread dough recipe. For example, American Sandwich Loaf bread is a lightly kneaded, white-flour pan loaf, and if you kneaded it heavily you would get the wrong texture and flavor. It might still be good, but it would be a notably different bread. Likewise brioche, pain de mie, foccacia, potato bread, and ...


10

I had this exact same problem for years. And it was all about letting the dough relax. I'd get beautiful crusts, but never EVER pass the windowpane test. I was so confused. Turns out, all I had to do was leave it alone for about 10 minutes, much less and I'd still run into issues. The window pane test is intended to show that enough gluten has been ...


9

This is a wonderful occasion for a cold rise! There are two main methods to prepare yeast doughs, warm or cold. The first is probably what you are familiar with - lukewarm liquid, a cozy spot for the dough and after one or two hours your dough is ready for the oven. The second is actually what many bakers prefer: A dough with a very small amount of yeast is ...


7

Once you start thinking in terms of techniques, it shouldn't be that hard. The book Ratio has an excellent overview of different methods for cakes. The blog pastrychefonline.com does as well. You can see an overview of the: Creaming method in which softened but not melted butter and sugar are whipped together first to create a network of air bubbles for ...


7

Both messes up the ratio, as you said, so you shouldn't use anything during kneading. You only need to use a little bit of something during shaping. With some pastries, the shaping is extensive and you get lots of the smoother worked into the dough; this is expected and desired (e.g. in strudel sheets). Properly kneaded bread dough does not stick to ...


7

For very high hydration loaves, you want to create your gluten development without adding an excess of flour which would reduce the relative hydration. This video from Italyum Recipes shows the classic stretch, slap and fold method, using a 70% hydration dough. Basically, you lift the entire dough from the work surface, allow it to stretch under its own ...


7

Yes it should - sort of. Your observation is right on point, a very rich dough will tear more easily. (I did the same experiment once myself.) But it will still show some characteristics of the windowpane test: it will stretch smoothly and the "pane" should be very even, not show streaks of thicker and thinner areas. Note that the temperature of your ...


7

I think the real answer is this: cutting into the loaf too soon is the problem. When it's straight out of the oven it's still very moist and soft inside. A bread knife hooks tiny bits of the bread and squishes them together into beads because it's still very moist and malleable until it's had a chance to cool properly. Once it's cooled, the bread knife will ...


6

If you punch down a no-knead loaf, on average, you'll get a more consistent crumb and fewer large holes in the finished loaf.


6

I'd do one or more of a few things: Treat it like the dough in Artisan Bread in Five Minutes a Day, in which you sprinkle flour on top, then pull off a portion you need, then shape quickly into a ball, developing the outer skin, keeping the freshly floured side out. Chill down the dough, so it's firmer and easier to work with. (and then do #1 while it's ...


5

Don't worry too much about it. Be careful that some doughs are wet (high hydration - look at my question here), so they tend to stick more and are harder to manage. If a dough is hard to manage, just let it sit in the fridge for a couple of hours. It will become tougher and easier to handle. If you keep on adding flour, this will alter the bread formula (...


5

Edit: I assumed bread dough here, during initial kneading. Seeing Stephie's answer made me remember that "kneading" applies to many more contexts. But please keep my assumption in mind when reading the answer here. Yes, you can knead it with a rolling pin if you want to. You'll have to repeatedly roll it into a flat shape, fold it once or a few times into ...


5

The purpose of kneading is to develop gluten in the dough. Gluten is made of long strands of protein — it makes the dough stretchy, so it can contain the bubbles created by the yeast or sourdough culture, enabling the dough to rise. Therefore, you need to knead before rising. If you knead the dough again after its first rise, you'll destroy many of the ...


5

From your comment that the dough does not rise at all, it is almost certain that your yeast is dead. Poor kneading will not cause the dough not to rise. I suggest proofing the instant/active dry yeast in lukewarm water to isolate as many variables as possible. You can even use room-temp water. Add 1/2 teaspoon of sugar to the water, add the yeast, mix ...


5

What kind of whole wheat flour are you using? An organic supermarket near me offers a mill to use on-site, and I once bought a package of wheat and milled it there, to see how bread tastes with unoxidized flour. The roughly milled bran teared my gluten badly, and I had much difficulty getting the dough to perform well. The bread didn't rise well either. ...


5

This is completely normal and actually what you want bread dough to do, the bubbles mean that your yeast is active, and your bread will rise. However, bubbles that are too big can be undesired in your finished product and may actually cause the bread to cook unevenly. I make sure to eliminate all large bubbles during each kneading session. The presence of ...


4

Im new to the site and I wish I could make this comment not an answer but I don't know how. Hand pulled noodles uses cake flour with less gluten and baking soda to reduce the gluten even further. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ze2SphqrWyg&feature=g-hist http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nBSTSKY_DQs&feature=g-hist If you are hand kneading its ...


4

Using old yeast or too much/too little yeast (I assume that using old yeast is the same as using too little yeast?) Instant yeast is pretty well preserved as it's encased in a starch binder, and I've never seen it go bad (6-12 months is the longest I've had a large container of it). Cake yeast lasts only a few weeks (but most grocery stores don't sell it ...


4

If I were to convert a machine kneading time to hand kneading time, I'd take the time and at least double it, perhaps between double and triple, depending on how strong/vigorous you are. The odds of over-kneading by hand are pretty low, as compared to by machine. I would guess that the flour substitutions or the coldness were more of an issue than the ...


4

It's most likely (in my opinion) that the air (and subsequently air bubbles) is being introduced into your fondant at the kneading process rather than anything to do with your rolling method or surface used to roll on. Perhaps experiment a little on a more gentle but firm (as opposed to vigorous) kneading method and see if that removes those air bubbles in ...


4

The temperature influences the speed of rising, but to significantly change the dough hardness, you need a very cold temperature. Even if your hands are "cold", they are certainly above air temperature, and firming up dough through coldness is only possible if you use very cold ingredients, below fridge temperature (4 Celsius). It could be kneading ...


4

A super sticky dough is exactly what you want for pan pizza. Take a look at what Kenji from Serious Eats has to say about pan pizza dough. He uses a super-sticky, no-knead dough, but I bet yours would be fine for this application. I followed Kenji's advice to make this pizza, it was the best pan pizza I've ever had. Using the pan made dealing with the ...


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