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99

I'm going to agree with Szczerzo about this being an anthropologic question, but I'm going to disagree about the cause. While nomadic lifestyles was an influence, it's not causative. I'm also going to ignore the distinction made about raising agents in the OP, because it's factually incorrect; most Arab/Levantine/Turkish/Kurdish breads use yeast. Instead, ...


52

The main reasons are speed and convenience. Yeast takes longer (even "instant" yeast) and requires more maintenance: waiting for dough to rise, etc. But those are the historical reasons for the adoption for baking powder. Since it became common, another reason emerged: that is, it's very difficult if not impossible to get some kinds of texture and crumb ...


35

It's actually an anthropologic question. It's more due to Europe being settled down while Middle Eastern peoples were still nomadic. Raising bread, even with agents, is very hard when you move or don't have much time. For a raised bread you need a starter and few hours; for a flat bread you need a few minutes. Not to mention flat bread can be baked ON an ...


22

1. Chemical leaveners There are two "oldfashioned" chemical leaveners, both still used today in traditional German and Scandinavian gingerbread recipes: Potassium carbonate (potash or pearl ash) and Ammonium bicarbonate (salt of heartshorn) They do have their own quirks and pitfalls, but if nothing else is available... If you can get baking soda, mix ...


14

In addition to Athanasius's excellent answer, the other reason to choose chemical over yeast leavening is the composition and proportion of the other ingredients. Yeast is an organism that requires a certain balance in order to reproduce and yield the CO2 that makes dough rise. Banana bread and other quickbreads often have an abundance of sugar. While ...


13

It's also worth mentioning that many flatbreads have a rather long storage life. For instance, the Sardinian pane carasau is split and cooked a second time so that it could be used on months long trips. It's quite possible that the different climates and jobs led to differences in bread making.


9

For baking, you may be able to find flour with leaveners already mixed in. Look for self-rising or self-raising flour. Note that in the US at least, self-rising flour also has salt added.


8

Perhaps the difference is not so much between leavened and unleavened as between flat and loaf. In colder climates, there is an existing need for a persistent fire, which has been lit for heating, as well as cooking. In those cultures, ovens and baking are more likely to arise. Even the leavened breads of the Middle East and South Asia tend to be flat, and ...


7

It would not work. The benefit of egg is that it is largely (aside from water) comprised of protein (~12g/100g). This forms a stable structure when you whip it, that is maintained because the proteins denature (that's why the white goes white from clear when cooked) and form an insoluble and highly stable mass. Cream, on the other hand is largely fat (19g/...


6

I imagine you have tried recipes already with an appropriate quantity of xanthum gum and starches... are you making any substitutions, or omitting ingredients? Substitutions really change the game significantly, even unwitting substitutions like sweet rice flour vs white rice flour, potato flour vs potato starch. Substituting an alternative flour directly ...


6

The primary benefit of baking powder is speed. You don't have to wait hours dough to rise from yeast. Baking powder causes a chemical reaction that releases gas for leavening.


6

As @Marcin stated in the comments above, there are no sources for the answers given, and many of the answers have issues: Materials, it may not be the prairie, but wheat, spelt, barley, and rye were all available and used for breads even in the ancient Middle East Resources, sure, there's less wood for ovens and flatbread cooks more quickly, but desert ...


6

"Leavener" as you're defining the term, is vague. A meringue of whipped egg whites are "leaveners" in the sense that they provide a stable structure for tiny air molecules; but of course an egg white by itself won't leaven anything, because there's no gas for the foam. Baking powder is a "leavener" in the sense of generating gas for a foam, but a mixture of ...


5

Sounds like it's working for you. As long as the dough doesn't form a skin, inhibiting rising, then looks like it ain't drying out. Very even heating too, I imagine; that's critical: with the hot and cold patches of some big ovens, uneven fermentation and rising could ruin a loaf especially the final proofing. Cracks in the sides of the crust can be blamed ...


5

If it is a quick bread then it should be chemically leavened with baking powder or soda. The presence, or absence, of sugar should not play a role at all in the working of baking powder. Where sugar may play a role, however, is in creaming the fat. If this recipe calls for solid fat such as butter or shortening then it will often also call for the sugar to ...


5

Can you list the leavening agents used in your Japanese Milk Bread? Baker's Ammonia is NOT a good choice. The milk is likely to trap the ammonia and leave an awful taste. Baker's Ammonia is Ammonium Bicarbonate and Ammonium Carbonate and was used before Baking Soda. You should only use this for low moisture baked items like crisp cookies and crackers where ...


4

TL:DR answer - not really. The beaten egg whites are an integral component of the souffle, forming both the rising action of the mixture (by capturing air within the protein network of the eggs) and and the structure. The recipe you linked to is more of a cake than a souffle, even using the creaming method commonly seen in cake production. While other ...


4

A few rules for bread with big holes: You need a good gluten network, so: Use bread/strong flour or add a spoonful gluten to all-purpose and be generous with the water. Do not knead (or at least as little as possible) after the first rise. Consider the stretch-and-fold technique instead. Give the gluten time to develop. (The alternative to mechanical ...


4

Pierre Herme's "Cake Ispahan" is basically a pound cake flavoured with rose, raspberry and litchi, then glazed. Let's look at the ingredients as reported on PH's own online shop: Sugar water wheat flour (GLUTEN) EGGS cream (MILK) butter (MILK) freeze-dried raspberries (2,6%), freeze-dried litchis (2,6%), hydrogenated vegetal fats (coconut and palm kernel ...


3

If your recipe relies on yeast to make it rise, Splenda will not work. Sugar is food for yeast: if it's zero calories for you, it's zero calories for the little yeastie beasties too.


3

You don't want a 'super hot' oven. 50°F/25°C can make a big difference in how fast the cake rises. It's likely he's also using a fan-assist oven. You can reduce how quickly the top browns by either making the batter slightly more acidic or putting a sheet pan above it to reduce the radiant heat so that you can get more lift before the top sets. You'll ...


3

So the recipe in baker's percents: Flour 100% cold water 80% olive oil 4% salt 2% instant dry yeast 0.2% This looks like a high-hydration Sicilian-style dough that's calling for a 24 hour cold ferment (CF). As you can see in such a recipe, the yeast level is very low -- so low that you're unlikely to ...


2

The short answer to your question is YES. The extra acid in the ingredients will hamper the second act of the double acting baking powder. The acids are timed/staged for reaction not the baking soda. The Magic Baking Powder (happens to be in our kitchen, too) is mostly a single acting formula since monocalcium-phosphate is a low temperature acid (with ...


2

In my limited experience (I bake bread a lot, I don't chase "big holes" a lot, and I don't mind) you'll want to adjust your hydration, but not in the direction you seem to think you might. If you want to "rise up" then find one of those baskets for the bread to rise in - you need an annoyingly wet dough for the big holes.


2

Yep! I make double-batches of mini cupcakes that often take 3-4 rounds in the oven and they all come out pretty much the same. Granted, the minis only bake for about 15 minutes or so and muffins can take longer but I've never had an issue. As a note, the recipes I use call for either baking powder only or baking powder and baking soda. Also, I usually make ...


2

Nope.. If you use self raising flour with yeast, the bread would come out like a cake.. Self raising flour already has baking powder added to it but if the recipe calls for self raising flour along with baking soda then add it...


2

Yes! I got this recipe from CBS Saturday Morning. 4 eggs 1 1/3 C heavy cream 1 1/2 C shredded sharp cheddar cheese 1 1/2 C grated Parmesan cheese Mix all the ingredients in a blender over medium speed. Pour into souffle baking dish (greased or not depending if the dish is non-stick). Bake at 425 for 25-35 minutes or until a toothpick inserted into the ...


2

I got a pretty thorough answer to my question on the Chemistry sister site to this one. https://chemistry.stackexchange.com/questions/43896/can-i-use-lye-as-a-cooking-leavener-instead-of-baking-soda In short, lye, while caustic, will not create a chemical reaction producing CO2, which is what baking soda does during leavening. So lye is at-best an inferior ...


2

It will depend a lot on what you want out of your pizza dough. Are you looking for pizza dough that's thick, fluffy, rich, floppy, chewy, crisp, dry, flaky, crumbly? You can make good pizzas with any of these characteristics, and you can also prefer (even strongly) some over others. Changing leavening will change taste and texture, but it's up to you to ...


2

Depending on what you are making, you can easily use just one of the mechanisms to create tiny air bubbles in your finished product. On one end of the spectrum are for example pancakes: you mix just enough to ensure that the baking powder (or soda) is distributed well enough, then bake. On the other side we have sponges that work fine with just a base of ...


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