98

It's essentially just water. You can directly see this in the full USDA nutrition facts (link is for "Chicken, broilers or fryers, breast, meat only, cooked, roasted"). Per 100g, there is 65.26g of water, 31.02g protein, 3.57g fat, accounting for 99.85g. The rest is probably just trace nutrients and rounding errors. You'll see the same kind of thing for ...


45

There's definitely some rounding going on because the peanut butter has 100.1g of nutrients per 100g of product. This isn't enough to explain the discrepancy. Adding up the nutrients on the roasted peanuts gives 95.4g. I think we can assume the other 4.6% is water. So perhaps more water has been driven off the peanut butter. What I think is more likely (...


43

Flatly, the calories are in the filter: in the grounds that you dump on your compost. In the water that went through the grounds, there are mostly aromatic substances and traces of coffee oils, few enough that a cup of coffee has (rounded) 0 calories. The caloric values given for coffee beans are valid if eaten - which is rarely done in significant amounts ...


39

Most of the weight in fresh fruit is water, which has no calories. When you dry the fruit, the remainder is concentrated, so there are more calories in a given volume or weight. Sulfur dioxide is a preservative with anti-microbial properties. The claim of 3.6 times the energy is specious.


37

Reasons to wash your rice: Reduce/Control Starch levels Often when you're cooking rice you want distinct grains of rice and for your rice to have texture. In the case of Chinese fried rice for example, you specifically want your rice grains to not stick to one another. If you're talking white rice especially, there will be a lot more loose starch that will ...


36

The "Ash" is not an ingredient in the flour To be clear, the "Ash" is a measure of what you'd get left - if you burned the flour. It is not an ingredient in the bag of flour. More specifically if you had 100g of flour - the "Ash" number is literally how much the Ash would weight if you burned all of it. As starch burns readily, what you'll be left with is ...


20

These are two different ways to preserve food. The canned salmon was boiled and then sealed into a can while it was still boiling sealed into a can and boiled under a specified combination of time and temperature that has been empirically proven to kill enough bacteria. All the bacteria in the can are dead, and no more can get in, so it's sterile and won't ...


15

I can only guess at it needs to be a different recipe for the can compared to the bottle. The ingredients list, though not hugely helpful, lists tea-extract at 0.3% on one pack & 0.32% on the other. If they've changed that, they could change anything else & not have to report it in ingredients, only in nutritional value. In fact, putting it through ...


14

From Googling Nutritional Claims Excellent: YES! These terms are highly regulated in the United States. In the US, the FDA sets the following standards for food products: "High," "Rich In," or "Excellent Source Of" - Contains 20% or more of the DV per RACC. May be used on meals or main dishes to indicate that the product contains a food that meets ...


12

It's just rounding. The Hellman's nutrition matches the USDA generic mayonnaise nutrition very closely for the single serving size (1 tbsp, 13.8g), but the USDA one also includes amounts per 100g. It's 0.96g protein per 100g, and when scaled down to the serving size that's only 0.13g and gets rounded to 0.


12

Canned salmon is sterilized. Sterilization uses heat to render a product safe. Cured hams are preserved with salt, and nitrites in some cases. Some hams are also cooked. Furthermore, some fish is salted and dried for curing purposes. Salt and drying greatly reduce water activity to render a product safe. Two different processes, both create a safe product.


11

For Japanese (like me), our white rice is always thoroughly washed in cold water until the water runs clear. Steamed white rice is at the very core of most of our diets, and we take it really seriously. In fact, the Japanese word for "meal" and for "rice" are the same ("gohan"). American white rice (I think by law) is pre-washed then "fortified" (meaning ...


11

The best way to be confident is to check some clear nutrition facts directly. The USDA reports that "Pasta, dry, unenriched" has 371 calories per 100g, and "Pasta, cooked, unenriched, without added salt" has 158 calories per 100g. So your 176 calories per 100g seems to be for cooked pasta; it's way too few calories for 100g dry, even if your pasta is ...


10

Well, this is what Kikkoman has to say about it: Kikkoman Less Sodium Soy Sauce is brewed exactly the same way as all-purpose Kikkoman Soy Sauce. However, after the fermentation process is completed, approximately 40% of the salt is removed. Although there is less sodium in Less Sodium Soy Sauce, all the flavor and quality characteristics remain because ...


10

My guess is that the peanut butter is 100% peanuts but not 100% of the peanuts are being used in it. That's like sea salt that is 100% from the Atlantic Ocean. It still contains a smaller amount of water (and consequently a larger amount of sodium) than the Atlantic Ocean does. Or 100% pure orange juice which fortunately omits the orange peels.


10

Most white rice produced in the US is thoroughly washed then fortified. So, Americans don't usually wash white rice. It's fine if you do, though. Rice imported from other countries may not be either washed nor fortified. Look at the label for clues.


10

Using an air fryer without oil is essentially the same thing as using a convection oven. This would make it no more and no less fatty than baking. If you use oil in the air fryer then my understanding is that you are being marginally less fatty than deep frying because the saturation in oil is just not as significant. Incidentally your use of oil in a ...


10

The basic definition of Brix is grams sugar per 100 g solution. For an avocado, the FDA’s nutrition data says that’s 8.5 °Bx. The Brix scale is generally applied to solutions consisting mostly of sugar and water. That’s why it’s possible to use something like specific gravity or a refractometer to measure it. For solutions with other significant components, ...


9

Also does it modify or make the food more nutritious with solar cooker. Not more than any other kind of similar cooking by radiant heat, like baking. There is simply no mechanism by which that could happen. Let's examine some claims I found from Google: from http://www.greenbuild.org/uncategorized/3-reasons-solar-cooking-is-good-for-you-and-the-environment/...


8

None of them are right—or, all of them are right. "Ground bison" does not fully describe the product. Any ground meat is produced from one or more cuts of varying fat content, and usually does not have the same overall fat content as the average across all cuts of meat for that animal. So, to have a chance at comparing these different sources of information,...


7

Remember that calories are basically how much energy you can get by burning stuff. If you try to evaporate a cup of coffee, you will only have a small amount of dark brown residue left. If you didn't use a filter, you'll have more residue. People usually don't drink up the ground coffee in their cups, so for the purpose of counting how much burnable material ...


7

Starch content and sweetness: Bananas become sweeter as they ripen because the starch is broken down. An unripe banana is full of complex carbohydrates, but as it ripens, these are broken down into simple sugars which is why riper bananas are sweeter. The lower starch content and higher sugar content also means that the banana is digested more quickly, so it ...


7

No, neither caramelization (which is the same as pyrolysis in this context), nor the Maillard reaction increase the sugar content of onions. They actually decrease it a bit. Caramelization/pyrolisis starts out with a sugar and ends with something that is not sugar. Maillard starts with a sugar and amino acids, and ends up with something that is no longer ...


7

You are comparing (100 g of custard made with some of this powder and some milk) to (100g of this powder) -- ignoring the salt, anyway. The magic words are As prepared with semi-skimmed milk That's where the sugars and proteins come from, among other things.


6

SAJ14SAJ's answer is very good for the basic case. There are a few exceptions. First, if you have an ingredient which is partly discarded, it can be hard or impossible to find out what part ended up in your final food. If you deep fry vegetables in oil, you will have to calculate the change in oil weight to find out how much oil got absorbed. Worse, if you ...


6

Use Wolfram Alpha, it is just adding them up. But any lab result has to use average ingredient figures too. You need to allow for variance in supply i.e protein level of flour changes with variety and season. It produces pretty labels, all ready to go! e.g. http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=100g+flour+and+100g+butter+and+50g+sugar


6

Calcium hydroxide is pretty much insoluble, so it's hard to get every last bit of it out after nixtamalizing. A trace always remains. If the maker were selling lime flavored tortilla chips, which are sold the ingredient list would say something like "lime extract" or "natural lime flavor".


6

As Zanna said, you can't just add all the values together, some items are a fraction of others. In this case, "total carbohydrates" already includes the "sugar" and "dietary fibre" items, so the total is "fat" + "total carbohydrates" + "protein", which adds up to 27g out of 30g. That leaves 3 g for water, ash (inorganic salts, like table salt, basically) and ...


6

This is a rather general question, and I will try to answer it in a general manner. First, the total amount of carbohydrates will not change, or maybe there will be a neglible reduction due to things like burning tiny bits of surface carbohydrates to carbon, or cleaning the vegetables. Second, the ratio of all carbohydrates to everything else can easily ...


6

While rumtscho's answer is literally correct, the word "caramelization" when applied to onions includes lots of things other than literal caramelization. Yes, actual chemical caramelization turns sugars into other things (including some flavorful components). Similarly, Maillard reactions will convert sugars and other components together into flavorful ...


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