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13

2% (20g per 1000g) would be my default recommendation based on sources local to me, but with care less salt may work if sanitation is extremely good (to minimize introduction of undesirable bacteria which the salt helps to supress.) On the high end, I can say that 4% seems to slow things down, but work, and 8% seems to be simply too much. The pictured jars ...


12

Developing upon a previous idea from @mroll, eggs + fat (oil or butter) has some interesting science to explore. Slowly adding oil to the yolk while whisking will create an emulsion of the fat drops in the water: mayonnaise. This phase is not favorable energetically, and this is why you need to provide energy to the system to create it. The process consists ...


10

If the tea was distilled water, a 5% solution would have been sufficient. That is, you'd need 50 grams of acid to 950 grams of water. The problem is, the impurities of the water and the tea itself buffer it somewhat, so it's impossible to predict the exact amount you need. You'll have to use a pH meter, and an accurate one, not strips, to make a pH solution ...


9

My understanding is that the ratio shifts from 10:1 (liquid to roux) for a pale roux, up to about 5:1 for a nutty brown roux, with a somewhat linear relationship between the two extremes. A dark brown roux has very little thickening power, mostly they are used for flavor more than actual work-a-day thickening. The problem may not so much in the roux ratios, ...


8

If anything, for egg washes in general, it might be more common to add water (or milk or cream) than not. Thinning the wash makes it easier to brush on an even, not-too-thick layer. It also tends to get you a more golden color, less dark brown.


8

I usually use 1/4 cup per person for a smallish portion, and 1/3 cup per person if you're a bit hungrier. You'll probably want to check the instructions for your rice cooker to check exactly how much water you should add as different manufacturers vary. I believe the one I used in the past needed an equal quantity of water to rice.


8

The USDA recommended serving of rice (PDF) is 1/2 cup cooked, which should be 1/4 cup raw, as rice about doubles in size. The reality, though, is that the amount someone should eat and the amount someone does eat is not usually the same. This can be seen in the wide variation of serving sizes listed on various sites. This one that talks about serving sizes ...


8

The standard rice cup measure is one go (long o sound) ~180ml, which was at some point based on a Japanese government opinion about how much raw rice an average person would consume. 1 koku is 1000 x 1 go, so this implies that a typical person would have consumed almost one go per meal. But this would likely have been defined during a period in which most ...


8

Egg white is very gloopy, unless you cut it with some water or milk it's hard to get a good, even layer. With challah this can mean you get a blob of egg white running down into a seam between braids which doesn't look good. A bit of water loosens it up and makes it much more spreadable.


7

My experiment with table sugar, pouring 1/2 cup of table sugar into a glass container then pouring in 1/2 cup of water on top without stirring resulted in the water line reaching the 3/4 cup mark after a few seconds of absorption. So the ratio of the volume of separated sugar and water to the mixture is 3:4.


7

I am accustomed to the boil-and-drain method of cooking rice. If you like your rice very soft/mushy, you can even cook rice 3.5:1 and wait until all water has evaporated on moderate-to-low heat (this is how my grandma always does it). The texture is different from the aldente 2:1 rice common in the USA, but I think the preference is a matter of habit. It ...


6

You need less cream for a firmer consistency. The eggs are the part that set during the cooking process. The cream adds moisture and fat, both of which make it softer and runnier.


5

As there are multiple types of meringues, I imagine the core of this question is really the effect of acid on egg white foaming. According to KATERYNA LOMAKINA and KAMILA MÍKOVÁ writing in the Czeck Journal of Food Science, there is a moderately complex relationship between pH of the egg whites, and its foaming capacity (overrun) and the stability of the ...


5

Well, after this came up in another question and after realizing data on this was hard to find online, I pulled out my graduated cylinder and tried it myself. As noted in comments, measuring sugar by volume is very inexact. I found that simply by pouring sugar into the graduated cylinder and tapping it, I could start with about 110mL and tap it down to ...


4

I checked a few German Sources1 and found a range between 7.5g salt per kg cabbage2 and 20g salt per kg cabbage3. So anywhere between one and a generous two teaspoons per kilogram (two pounds) should be fine. But what exactly is the salt doing in your cabbage/sauerkraut? Well, in theory you could leave it out. The bacteria and yeasts necessary for the ...


3

I usually cook 1/2 cup (measuring cup 8oz) rice per person...in the rice cooker or on the stove you want to double the water....ie 1/2 cup rice to 1 cup water....1/3 cup rice to 2/3 water...2cup rice to 4cup water...etc...


3

There's no simple answer to this other than "it depends". Ratios like the Ruhlman chart are a good jumping off point, but for a lot of chemically leavened things there's a lot more to it. I would highly recommend reading the section on balancing recipes from Cookwise by Shirley Corriher and using it in conjunction with this chart. The amount of eggs needed ...


3

I don't know if it's possible to give a very accurate roux:liquid ratio as a function of color because it can be hard to accurately and repeatably judge the color. Your best bet is to add some of the liquid -- maybe half or so of what you expect to need eventually, whisk until smooth, and bring it to a boil. It should thicken up at that point, and then you ...


3

I would experiment with more cheese and less added liquid to make it more firm, making sure the pureed mushrooms are as tiny as possible (Pacotize, homogenize, etc.), and if that still gives an inferior texture try adding some sodium citrate. It sounds like you want to add a minimal amount of liquid and enough emulsification to make sure the water-soluble ...


3

None. I have recently discovered that lentils do not require to be soaked prior cooking - and nor baking soda. I have already detailed this in an answer but I am not sure how to find it and link to it. I try and I will edit this. Another point is that the producers recipes were all clear about this : they recommend a minimal amount of salt in the cooking ...


3

Egg whites and yolks. If mixed separately and then folded together you get a creamy fluffy substance. If you mix them together you get scrambled eggs


3

You cannot find a "golden ratio" as there is no such thing for something as diverse as "waffles": Brussels Waffles Liège Waffles Butter waffles Vanilla waffles Blueberry waffles Honey Waffles ... Just take a recipe for waffles that resembles the kind of waffles you want to make and substitute one ingredient for another (In this case, I'd start with a ...


2

Try here- https://www.inkling.com/read/professional-chef-cia-9th/chapter-11/roux Although this doesn't specifically answer the question, it does include a comparative colour chart for roux, which will be most helpful in gaining a consistent thickening power. From there I'd be tempted to make a batch of sauce as suggested above, using a given quantity of ...


2

Generally 60-80g or so if you are just having a sauce and rice. If you are having starters, sides, or vegetables then 50-60g, or if it's someone very hungry, 80-100g.


2

I'm going to answer this with the assumption that your true requirement is not what acid to use; but how to make a stable meringue, with or without acid (provided that WITH acid, an undesirable taste is not added). I suggest to forget the cream of tartar all together. What you are making is called the "Common Meringue" and is the least stable of all ...


2

Compare that recipe to this very similar one from Ina Garten (complete with handy video) Chocolate Buttermilk Cake. Watch her pour. No question, that is a wet batter. Apparently it works fine, Ina's recipe is very highly rated. Both recipes use volumetric measurements (ugh), so I'll use cups. Ina's recipe (sugar is wet (sort of), subject for another ...


2

Note that Vanillekipferl use almonds or other nuts - so Mandelkipferl would be a specific kind of (Vanille)Kipferl. They are dusted with or rolled in a mixture of confectioners sugar and vanilla (vanilla sugar or scraped/ground bean, not liquid extract) while warm. The term "Kipferl" denotes a crescent-shaped bakeware, in this case a traditional Christmas ...


2

Essentially, food pathogens cannot grow below 4.0 pH and vinegar is significantly more acidic that that. If you go here and scroll down a bit, there is a good, succinct explanation. They use brines of 38 and 44 percent vinegar "for taste and safety". With this basic information, it would be easy to create brines that are safe and suite your taste. You ...


2

As I understand it, you may be seeing some confusion between two very different processes. When making sauerkraut, you are fermenting cabbage in brine, and the fermentation gives sauerkraut its characteristics. I believe this means you need to have or introduce the right microbes, and give them time and space and the right environment to work, and prevent ...


2

When it comes to food 'thickness' (viscosity) is frequently discussed in 'relative terms' but not 'measurable units'. As such I'm not sure your question can be answered in 'absolute' terms. Turning to Ratio where it discuss "Stocks and Sauces" A Roux is 3 parts flour to 2 parts fat and the 'thickening ratio' is 10 parts liquid to one part roux. vs. A ...


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