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24

The goal is to keep the surface of the bread from drying out. A wet towel works fine but plastic wrap is cheaper and easier than constantly cleaning wet towels. I have used both methods and haven't noticed a difference in the bread produced. In very dry climates, when I made bread with multiple rises I sometimes had to redampen the towel which was an added ...


20

Yes, you can easily slow down the rising time by lowering the temperature of the dough ("retarding" it, as the pros say). You can either put it in a cool place or refrigerate it; the colder it is, the slower it will rise. Dough can even be frozen and proofed later, though sometimes that will make it a bit wonky when it thaws.


13

Put a serving plate over the bowl. Normal way up so it doesn't slide off and doesn't need washing. Easy! A small amount of surface drying is not going to ruin a bread dough. Think of the millions of bread making machines out there, no plastic wrap required with them, just a reasonably fitting lid that stops air drafts, hence why the towel method worked fine


13

For 1 cup self-raising flour, add 1½ tsp baking powder+ ¼ tsp salt to 1 cup all purpose flour. (http://www.joyofbaking.com/IngredientSubstitution.html) Edit: Calculation added by Sebbidychef: According to http://www.jsward.com/cooking/conversion.shtml 1 cup of un-sifted all-purpose flour is equal to 120g. Therefore 1000 divided by 120 is 8.3 recurring (...


12

The second rising is quite necessary for good, light, airy bread. When you fold the bread and then shape it into a proper loaf, you compress it, pushing out some of the air pockets that grew when it was rising. If you don't let it rise a second time after shaping, the bread won't have the proper airy-ness and it will be very dense. You can't shape the ...


11

If you had the same problem with different recipes, it's probably caused by technique. The key to round buns is surface tension. If the skin is taut, the expanding gas will cause the bun to expand like a balloon instead of "flowing" sideways. When shaping your buns, make sure you create tension by either repeatedly folding the outer edge inwards or by using ...


11

What to do A dough should be generally risen by size anyway, not by time. But it is also very forgiving, so it will probably still give you decent edible bread if you do it by time. The best way is to wait until it has doubled, no matter what the clock shows. But you insist on going by the clock, don't change the time, wait the 30 minutes. It may be ...


11

Let me suggest a totally different approach: Why not work with the cool conditions instead of against? You could let the dough proof for a long time, e.g. overnight in the fridge. This allows for a lot less yeast and hence a less yeasty taste, which is usually desired. Also, more complex flavors develop during long proofing times. (There is a reason ...


10

It may be that your oven is not up to temperature before your first batch goes in. If it's not hot enough your cookies will have more time to melt and flatten before they cook. Try giving the oven 10 more minute preheating time before putting your first batch in.


9

This is a wonderful occasion for a cold rise! There are two main methods to prepare yeast doughs, warm or cold. The first is probably what you are familiar with - lukewarm liquid, a cozy spot for the dough and after one or two hours your dough is ready for the oven. The second is actually what many bakers prefer: A dough with a very small amount of yeast is ...


8

A good alternative to either a towel (which you have to wash and is prone to sticking) or plastic wrap (which ain't cheap or good for the environment) is a clear plastic shower cap. It does the same job as plastic wrap, but is reusable. The elasticated edge stretches around even big bowls, providing a snug fit.


7

Do you have a large plastic container? Something like this: . Use a non-permanent marker on the outside to mark the initial volume. A small diameter will make it easier to monitor the volume.


7

50C (122F) would be a very high proofing temperature. The thermal death point of yeast is 55C, and you'll definitely hit a point of diminishing returns if you get too hot (most likely, you will have really rapid proofing on the outside of the loaf and an underproofed "core"). I would recommend setting your oven to the lowest temperature, and then once it ...


7

In order to understand what's going wrong you need to understand what's happening in the oven. Bread rises in the oven because the yeast gets a boost from the heat before it is killed by it, and by the expansion of gases (O2, CO2, and water vapor) trapped in the dough. Well-developed gluten will trap air well, under-developed gluten will allow it to escape....


7

I make no knead bread at least once per week. I have only skipped the second rise once...because it ruined the bread! Eek! So sad. It made it dense and flat. Definitely worth the extra time and effort to get that second rise.


7

Margalo is missing a detail in their otherwise good answer: Many bread recipes use two rises, one after mixing ("bulk rise"), one after shaping and before the bread goes into the oven. For the first rise you just want to make sure the bowl is large enough, so at least double the volume of your unrisen dough. For very large and wide bowls, you just have to ...


6

I work with quite wet doughs and bake in a moist environment, but first rise - in a large Tupperware container, lid on but ajar at a corner to let gases escape. second rise - simply dusted with flour. No noticeable skinning at all or loss of oven spring.


6

A couple of things will lead to less spreading: Shortening instead of butter - butter contains up to 20% water. When it reaches 212F/100C, it turns to steam, expands, and causes things to rise/puff. Also, shortening, as a more processed/refined fat, has a more even melting point, which would cause it to spread less. If you want the flavor of butter, ...


6

I presume you're talking about active dried yeast. In that case, the granules of packaged yeast have some nutritive content to them, so what you observe when you add warm water is a weak form of priming. Priming is the addition of both warm water and a food source, typically sugar or flour, to dried yeast with the goal of 'waking-up' the yeast from their ...


6

In the winter, I usually get fine results proofing in a bowl with a second bowl inverted on top of it, and then putting the whole thing in the oven, turned off, and just the light on. The light bulb usually produces enough heat to keep the inside of my oven at about 90˚F (32˚C?), and that gives me a good rise.


6

Unfortunately many kinds of fermentation produce CO2 as a byproduct, so the presence of bubbles hardly give you more information than 'it is alive'. If what you want is a precise identification of what strain of yeast and bacteria are present in your starter, I see no easier way than looking under a microscope or making a laboratory analysis. If you just ...


5

Unbaked lumps probably mean you aren't mixing it enough. Try starting with a little less flour and knead in more as you go. Another issue is you may not be kneading it enough. Next time try using the windowpane test. You don't have to do this every time, but if you're having trouble with a specific recipe this will help you figure out how the dough ...


5

Spray the dough with oil, dust with a little flour, and either cover loosely with plastic wrap, or if the dough is on a tray, slide the whole thing into a food safe plastic bag.


5

There shouldn't be much different between dough rising on your counter vs. in your bread machine, unless your bread machine heats the dough slightly during rise (in which case the bread machine will be quicker). There are two things likely to cause what you're seeing: The dough hasn't achieved enough elasticity to rise. Normally this elasticity is provided ...


5

The shape of the container can also be helpful (or make more difficult) the evaluation of "how much did that rise" - if you are looking for "doubled" it's much easier to see that in a fairly straight-sided container, where "twice as high as when you put it" in means it's doubled. Indeed, clear plastic graduated containers are great for this, as you can note ...


5

For smaller items (rolls, typically, but I think it'd work for breadsticks), I'll let the dough proof the first time, shape it and place onto a sheet pan, cover it to prevent drying out, and then put the sheet pan in the fridge. When I come home from work, I'll pull the pan out to come up to temp some while the oven is pre-heating. (more details) In that ...


5

I'd lower the temperature. You'll have to experiment. I think what happened is that the bottom quickly cooked and sealed. As your liquid ingredients turned to steam an air pocket was created, which would further slow the cooking of the middle.The still fluid batter would flow to the sides and provide more liquid, as the bottom rose.


5

What kind of whole wheat flour are you using? An organic supermarket near me offers a mill to use on-site, and I once bought a package of wheat and milled it there, to see how bread tastes with unoxidized flour. The roughly milled bran teared my gluten badly, and I had much difficulty getting the dough to perform well. The bread didn't rise well either. ...


4

Well, if air is the only raising agent, simply add less of it by not beating the mixture as much. Failing that, beat as normal, then give the mixing bowl a couple of (careful) bangs on the counter top to knock the air out it again. A bit of experimentation will be necessary to get the right results, I think: perhaps pour some of the mixture into the tin as ...


4

Did you preheat the Oven? At our facility we preheat to 400F then lower to 360F just as soon as we close the door. Why? Muffins do not rise enough (we feel) in a warm oven. The time the oven door is open also cools the oven itself 30-40 degrees. So we preheat, then it's at the right temp as soon as the door is closed. We try to cook fast in a hot oven ...


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