Use a rubber spatula to scrape the mixture off one side of the paddle. (For a head lift mixer, do this on the "uphill" side.) Them use the spatula diagonally in the holes, pushing the remaining mixture through the holes onto the unscraped side and off the paddle. The idea is for the mixture to fall out/off in clumps.
I replace the bowl with a clean, high sided bowl, and turn the mixer on high. The blades throw everything off into the bowl. Then it's easy to scrape that out. I often end up using that bowl for something else anyway, so there's no extra washing.
This is mentioned in the user manual for your stand mixer (the larger more detailed booklet, not the quick start pamphlet).
Those speeds exist on your machine, they just aren't labeled. The odd speeds aren't commonly used, so by design the lever is predisposed to "notch" at the evens, and the lever naturally wants to find a place there. However if you need ...
KitchenAids are great but even well adjusted there's a limit to how little you can put in. It partly depends on the ingredient. For instance, creaming small amounts of butter and sugar can work if you scrape the bottom often with a rubber spatula. Once it gets going and starts to cream it usually is fine. Cream and egg whites are similar. Batters are a ...
I would first make sure the beater to bowl clearance is set correctly. The manual (which I linked) shows you how to do it. However, there is a minimum amount of ingredients that will mix well. For those cases, maybe a whisk is a better tool.
Start with the liquid ingredients first including yeast and sugars but leave out the salt.
Mix the salt with the flour.
Start the machine on low and add just enough flour/salt to create a thick batter.
Mix until smooth at least 3 minutes then add the remaining flour a little at a time until the dough climbs the hook. Your dough is done.