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39

I notice that your recipe doesn't include any salt. That's important, because salt decreases the sensation of bitterness. Chicken contains a certain amount of salt, and I suspect that's making the difference. (The "umami" -- brothy -- taste of chicken may also decrease the sensation of bitterness, though as I understand it there's still some disagreement ...


29

Skimming is for aesthetic purposes. The scum is denatured protein, mostly comprising the same proteins that make up egg whites. It is harmless and flavorless, but visually unappealing. Eventually, the foam will break up into microscopic particles and disperse into your stock, leaving it grayish and cloudy. The more vigorously your stock bubbles, the ...


20

There's a great deal of variation in the quality of the pre-made stocks you get from different sources, so there's no clear-cut answer. Here's the types you might find: Stock cubes: these are dehydrated stock, or sometimes just chemicals meant to taste like it. It's the lowest quality option. There's a lot of variation here, I've found some brands (knorr ...


12

You can use it as a base for risotto if you like the flavor. It will make lovely pink rice.


12

Gelatin is naturally occurring in meat and poultry, it's broken down collagen, which is the material that distributes force throughout the muscle. You couldn't actually get rid of it easily even if you wanted to, so it isn't necessarily that you want it, but that it is there. Reducing the stock until it is gelatinous simply means that you've gotten rid of ...


12

Taste the meat and if it still seems edible to you then there is no reason to throw it out. When I make stock, I keep it on a simmer for much longer than three hours and any meat is completely tasteless by the time I'm done. Three hours, however, is about how long you would cook meat to make a stew, so it's quite possible that you could eat it. On the ...


11

Salmon or Tuna will make a very strong flavoured stock and will have lots of oil that coat your tongue. Not what you're looking for if you want a light brightly flavoured fish sauce. In a traditional French kitchen you want generic stocks (fish/brown/chicken/veal) that are able to be used for a wide range of sauces/dishes so having a salmon stock around ...


11

My best guess is that your stock is very weak. Two gallons of water to just the bones from one turkey will not be a strong stock. It may well well have gelatin in it, but very thin. I make stock for a single turkey with the wing tips (not the 'drumstick' part), the back, the neck--everything but the breast and leg/thighs in with about 1 gallon of water to ...


11

There are several advantages to using a pressure cooker other than speed, the first of which address your concerns about skimming. If operated correctly the water in a pressure cooker will never come to the boil resulting in a clearer stock than one made by convention means. From Modernist Cuisine (2-291): The liquid inside the pressure cooker will not ...


11

I never worry about this. As your stock simmers, the joints, muscle and connective tissue break down and eventually they'll sink in. Sometimes adding a bit of vinegar to your stock first helps with this. Until then, just stir the stock and move the bones around occasionally.


10

This sounds counterproductive. Making stock means that you let the boiling water leach nutrients, flavors, and other stuff from the bones. Then you remove the solid parts (bones, scum) and are left with the gelatine and flavors dissolved in the water. Now, if you preboil the bones and throw away the water, you throw away all the flavor which has been ...


10

There isn't anything that is necessarily "bad" or should always be avoided in stock, but some ingredients have qualities you won't always want. Dark greens (spinach, kale, etc) can make a stock bitter and of course greenish in color. Cabbage also can impart a overwhelming bitterness. Potatoes can cloud a stock from their starchiness, so they are not good ...


9

What you need for the conversion of collagen is a certain amount of energy. It is a complicated process - the melting point is around 70°C for the type of collagen contained in beef, but the melting does not happen instantly once the meat reaches 70°C. In a pressure cooking, you can apply the same amount of energy in a shorter amount of time. This is not bad,...


9

Really it's up to you. I generally cook mine for 4 hours, but you can cook it longer or shorter. Cooking it for a short time will lead to a lighter, less flavorful stock, and cooking for longer leads to a darker, richer stock. Once again, there's no right answer, but I believe 1.5 hours and 6 hours would be best.


9

I can think of more than a few reasons... Wine is (relatively) expensive. Stock is normally supposed to be very inexpensive to make, using ingredients that you'd normally just throw out (bones, necks, etc.) Frugality is not the only reason to make a stock, but it seems like a waste of perfectly good wine. Stock gets to simmer for many, many hours. A lot of ...


9

A gravy tastes like gravy because it has salt and glutamates, which is what yeast extract has been formulated to deliver. There is no vegan replacement. The only good way to produce glutamates in your kitchen is to sear meat. You can certainly make a veloute sauce instead of a gravy. It is made from stock and roux. Roux is a combination of fat and starch - ...


9

All excellent information, but can I answer bluntly: none of them come even CLOSE to the real thing. Once you use fresh stock, you will never, ever go back. Really. Making stock is easy, cheap, and as said above, unattended time. Stock forms the base of the kitchen, once you have it, you will notice the taste of everything you make improve so much. Get some ...


9

I make veg stock overnight in a slow cooker on high with similar ingredients to you: onion, garlic, carrot, bay, peppercorns. But: celery instead of celeriac (I grow celery and often have some old tough stems and leaves which are perfect for stock), rarely parsnip or leek, and often some other herbs or veg I've got to hand. I don't add salt, and my ...


8

I agree that you can get some good meat from the head and could use it to flavour Bouillabaisse, i wouldn't however use it for stock as oily fish can lead to a cloudy fatty stock rather than the clearer and more flavoursome fish stock that can be derived from the off cuts and bones from white fish.


8

It depends on what is in the stock pot. Thick bones like beef joints may take all day. A simple vegetable broth can be had in 30 minutes. Generally, for chicken stock (which is what I make at home the most), when everything is falling apart and the bones are kind of bendy, you have gotten all you can get. This takes about 3-4 hours at a slow simmer ...


8

The absolute time a stock will take depends on the quantity of stock you are making and also on the ratio of solids to liquid with which you started (along with the strength of your burner, the starting temperature of the water, the geometry of your pot, ...). Intentional variation is also possible depending on your intended use. The best advice I've heard ...


8

The brown color of the stock comes from the cooking method, not the kind of bones, a chicken stock cooked in the "brown stock" method can be as dark as what we expect beef stock to be. Roasting the bones was a good start; but you also need to brown the vegetables, either with the bones for the last half hour or in a pan on the stovetop. One of the most ...


8

If you heat some up, and add a little salt, does it taste good? Then its a successful stock. If you want it to be thicker/stronger, simmer it a while to reduce it. As SAJ14SAJ says, that's a fairly large amount of water vs. the amount of bones.


8

Perhaps you could consider straining it twice? Use your strainer the first time to get out the larger particles and then do a second time with the cheesecloth so that it doesn't get clogged as easily. I imagine this wouldn't be any faster, but you'd have to fight with the clogged cheesecloth less.


7

Duck feet will render plenty of gelatin because of the amount of cartilage, same as chicken feet. Any bird's feet are a good choice. The method for making stock is pretty much the same no matter what you put into it, so yes, you can follow your favourite recipe for chicken stock and substitute duck feet. The only thing to keep in mind is that duck feet, ...


7

I've not heard of egg shells being used that way. I'm not sure what they would add. The classic way of clarifying a meat stock to make it crystal clear (ie: for a consommé) is to whisk egg white (and I know at least one chef who adds crushed up egg shell to this mix) and finely ground meat into the cold stock and then gradually heat it. As the added ...


7

The best use for beet stock--the water you boiled fresh beets in--is to drink it. Make sure, of course, you wash the beets before boiling so your stock is free of unwanted icky stuff. Beet stock is just one of the four ways you can use fresh beets. First, cut off the stalks and then cut the leaves off the stocks. The stalks, boiled or sauteed, can be eaten ...


7

I have never seen a stock recipe that recommended 3 days. In my experience, after 12 hours the bones gave up all they had and would crumble when touched. Even so- simmering with the lid off will cause quite a bit of evaporation. Definitely add water whenever you notice it is low. I've had stocks dry up completely and it smells absolutely horrible when they ...


7

You want to avoid salt, until the time of use--especially after reduction. Similarly, unless you know the use for the stock in advance you might want to avoid strong herbs like sage or lemongrass. Tomatoes probably are not suitable in my opinion for most meat stocks. And no fingers. Definitely avoid the fingers in the stock. It is really hot, and can ...


7

It sounds to me like the seal on the lids may be very slightly compromised. For example: lids start down with a good seal pressure can't escape and starts building up like usual imperfection in lid seal gives way a vents out pressure/heat, lid pops up jar/contents starts to cool, constricting, again like usual - this is what seals the jars in a normal ...


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