There is no general replacement. Almond flour has very little in common with all-purpose flour, and behaves very differently in baking.
Your idea of adding gluten is very interesting - many flourless recipes are actually made with the intent to be gluten-free, which is a very difficult restriction to work around. It is certainly something to have in your ...
Sumac is not related to chillies.
Harissa contains chillies.
Za'atar is a spice/herb blend, it should not have chillies in it, but every blend can be different, check the ingredient lists before buying.
In addition to totally lacking gluten, almond flour contains way more fat than AP flour, around 50 times as much. That's another reason it's popular in vegan/gf baking, it adds plant-based fat. So you will need to cut down on the fat elsewhere in the recipe. You will also need to adjust your expectations of what the finished product will be like.
I suggest ...
Cheesecake is essentially a baked custard with that substitutes cream cheese (and often some sour cream) for the dairy ingredient.
After all, a basic custard recipe is just milk, sugar, and eggs with some kind of flavoring added.
The cheese is the thing that gives cheesecake it's distinctive texture. Substituting cream and corn starch is going to end up with ...
So an analysis of the original recipe gives the following (I've omitted baking soda & salt for brevity):
2 cups AP flour ￼100.00% 250.0 g
½ cup sugar 24.00% 60.0 g
80 grams butter 32.00% 80.0 g
1 egg 20.00% 50.0 g
3 Tbsp milk 18.40% 46.0 g
Yes, you can use fruit juice instead of some or all of the milk in bread pudding. As Juhasz points out, whether or not the result will "really" be bread pudding is open to debate.
Since bread pudding is basically bread + custard, I looked up recipes for custard made with fruit juice and no milk. There are some custards made with fruit juice ...
There are possibly two questions hidden in the original question:
can I make a recipe that's like bread pudding but without eggs and milk?
Would this be bread pudding?
The second question can't be answered. You can call a dish whatever you want. I would think that most people would expect bread pudding to involve custard and bread, but it's easy to imagine ...
One gummy bear hacker says you need to leave them out for 3 days to aerate for the gelatin to toughen up. The longer you leave them out, the chewier they become.
Smoked Paprika, Coriander, and Turmeric (really just Paprika)
The flavour of cumin is warm, smoky, floral and woody. You can try hitting those notes with a mix of other spices. Paprika for warm and smoky; ground coriander for floral; turmeric for woody and floral.
Many Indian recipes contain cumin, coriander, and turmeric already. So the advice is really ...