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Butter: Butter is an emulsion of fat and water (more or less)—it is typically around 80-82% fat (European butters tend to have a little more fat, American butters tend to have a bit less)—and this fat is solid at room temperature. This suggests that a good substitute for butter would be another solid-at-room temperature fat (such as coconut oil, lard, ...


8

It's a while since I've made (vegetarian) moussaka but as Max says in the comments, lentils are a decent substitute here. I've used Puy lentils or lentilles vert*. You want something that holds a bit of texture/doesn't fall to bits too easily, unlike red lentils. A mix of red lentils and lentilles vert works well in other things for giving the sauce some ...


6

If we are talking about lactose intolerance (as opposed to some other issues like a genuine allergy), note that all the dairy products for your Béchamel are available as lactose-free version in most supermarkets. Other (non-dairy) substitutions would work - any combination of flour heated in fat and then used to bind a liquid will give you some kind of ...


6

80% potassium carbonate, 20% sodium bicarbonate at some concentration https://omnivorescookbook.com/kansui is likely to behave very differently than your sodium hydroxide. Kansui is probably strongly buffered, while your pH is likely to wander. That sort of thing is liable to wreck recipes. I'd find a good how-to online, and make the stuff right.


5

Many years ago when I was a vegetarian I used to Swear by Sarah Brown's Vegetarian Kitchen', published by the BBC. Though long out of print, many recipes from it still circulate on the internet. There wasn't a 'moussaka equivalent' recipe, there was a take on Shepherds Pie called Red Dragon Pie whose filling was based on aduki beans. The filling for that ...


4

"Spreads" are not an effective substitute for clarified butter for filo pastry, because they contain water and emulsifiers. The purpose of the clarified butter in filo pastry is to keep the layers separate, and water-containing spreads will encourage the layers to stick together. If you don't want to use butter, substitute vegetable shortening, ...


3

I have made bechamel many times using oil (olive or something more neutral tasting) in the roux, and then using an unsweetened 'coconut milk beverage' (the stuff sold in cartons that's thinned to the consistency of cow's milk and may have gums or other thickeners in it). I typically use Trader Joe's brand. It might be the exact same flavor, but you can get ...


3

The clarifying process of the butter is irrelevant here, what is relevant is the recipe in which you will be using the fat. Baklava is absolutely forgiving. Use any fat you want - butter, liquid oil, or a spread. I have made it and eaten it with all kinds of fat, it works. The only thing to keep in mind is flavor, you don't want to use some kind of highly ...


2

Brew your own wine stores sell "acid blend" crystals which include all three of the main organic acids: tartaric, malic, and citric. The ratios differ between brands. You could try mixing up a bit of acid blend in water to make a solution that is 5% acid, similar to the acid level in vinegar and see how you like it. Some wine shops also sell the ...


2

The method I was taught doesn't care about the absolute amounts: First add small amount of the sauce/soup/whatever you want to thicken to the 'powder type' thickener and stir, adding more sauce until it's a very thick liquid without clumps. Only then pour the liquefied thickener with sauce into the 'bulk' of sauce. A very modest amount of stirring will ...


2

Every fat prevents gluten formation as much as any other fat. At least, if there are any differences, they are not noticeable by somebody eating a finished product. When substituting fats, "how much it inhibits gluten" is not a criterion. Just pick whatever fits your recipe.


2

Lactose free milk is available almost everywhere. Butter contains only small amounts of lactose (just look at the carbohydrate content) and you don’t need that much. In some places you can nonetheless buy lactose free butter. Aged cheese contains very little to no lactose (again, just look at the carbohydrate content, lactose is a carbohydrate, if the cheese ...


2

A nutritional yeast "cheese" sauce is fairly similar to a bechamel. This one from Bob's Red Mill is basically a vegan bechamel with nutritional yeast flakes added. For more flavor, you could use a nondairy milk or broth instead of water. You could definitely just add some yeast flakes with the flour in your regular sauce recipe. You can get a ...


1

The answer is both yes, and at the same time no. The problem is that there are a lot of types of soy sauce (see What are the differences between types of soy sauce? ), and many of them are not good substitutions for each other. Depending on what type of soy sauce you're replacing, Tamari may be a good 1:1 substitution, or it may not be.


1

From personal experiences I highly recommend replacing the milk and butter with the vegan substitute for cream, I use the the soy milk one and add a pinch of salt. I don't know how sensitive your toddler is to lactose, but Parmesan is almost completely lactose free due to its long ageing process, so it should be safe to use. Generally, no hard cheese should ...


1

Basically, you can just replace butter with any other kind of fat, replace milk with water and leave out the eggs and cheese. It's really that easy. It won't taste the same, but come reasonably close in many aspects. Personally I like to add some nuts (like ground almonds for a relatively strong taste, blended soaked cashews for something more mild) and ...


1

Use a seitan recipe: SEITAN This versatile vegan meat replacement can be seared, grilled or fried! 1¾ cups Vital Wheat Gluten (seitan) ⅓ cup Nutritional Yeast 2 tsp Garlic Granules 1 tsp Onion Powder 2 tsp Crushed Fennel ½ tsp Turmeric 3 Tbsp Soy Sauce 1 tsp Molasses 1 tsp Tahini 1½ Tbsp Oil 1½ cups Mushroom or Vegetable Broth In a medium bowl, whisk ...


1

While there are many thickeners, none is easier to apply than tapioca starch. Other starches work the same as tapioca, with minimal differences in the final texture. All other thickeners are harder/more tedious to use, and none is as universally suited to different applications as starch is. There are no liquid thickeners, that would make no sense - ...


1

Simon. Which recipe are you trying to make? Keep in mind that sunflower spread is an emulsified product, so it should give a much denser structure to the final product if used as a replacement for clarified butter. I would recommend trying out two recipes, one with sunflower spread and another with clarified butter, that way you can see for yourself which ...


1

In theory you should be able to replace the sugar with a liquid form. The purpose of sugar in meringue is to stabilize the foam generated by the whipping. It does this by preventing the foam from drying out and collapsing as the structure becomes weaker from a lack of water. Hence anything that can retain the water will help. The one major difficulty that ...


1

Assuming you want to keep the recipe as close as possible to the original, you could simply replace the 3 cups of sweetened shredded coconut by sweetening yourself 3 cups of unsweetened shredded coconut. Here, as an example, this is a recipe to sweeten 1 cup of unsweetened shredded coconut. You can find the details and adjust the recipe to make 3 cups. Keep ...


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