What would change would be the taste & texture.
Pulses [bean/chickpeas etc] are virtually the same canned as cooked from dried. These are the usual two methods. Fresh isn't really an option to most people, so dried or canned are the accepted sources.
Tomatoes are used canned so often they have become almost a "food type" of their own. To many people, Italian food almost depends on the canned tomato.
Almost nothing else I can think of off the top of my head can be canned without totally changing the flavour & texture for the worse. Canned food is already cooked, so sautéing won't really be necessary.
Frozen has an even smaller window. Peas will freeze & be as good if not better than fresh. Crushed garlic is OK. Almost nothing else works. Carrots, cauliflower, broccoli, potatoes & the like are all
revolting ...ermm... inedible ...err... not as good as fresh.
Really, if you want the full experience, as designed by the recipe author, there is no substitute for fresh vegetables.
Supermarkets will often do small bags of fresh, ready-prepared vegetables, single variety or useful mixes. Though pound for pound they are more expensive than peeling & chopping yourself, they can sometimes prove more economical as you simply don't have to buy a full quantity of items you really only need one each of.