I agree with FuzzyChef's answer, though I'd emphasize in general that this is often a question as shape as well as volume. A cake that is increased in size but also baked in a wider pan so its overall thickness is about the same as the original may not need much additional cooking time at all, or the increase might be small. When one increases all dimensions (and thus increases the thickness too), it takes longer for heat to migrate to the center and thus may need a more substantial increase in cook time.
Also, I want to address the reference made to "increasing the oven temperature." Generally speaking, when making a larger cake or quick bread, you don't want to increase the oven temperature, as it may very well cause excessive browning on the exterior (or burning, along with perhaps drying out near the edges) before the center is cooked.
If anything, larger cakes and quickbreads sometimes call for decreasing the oven temperature, to allow extra time for the interior to cook before the exterior gets too brown. If the temperature is decreased, the time must be increased to take this into account. (FuzzyChef's linked document shows these trends too.)
Unfortunately, there's no general rule that applies in all cases, as some quick breads may be prone more to excessive browning, while others may be fine if baked a bit longer at the standard temperature. Sometimes adjustments in leavening or other ingredient adjustments may be necessary to take into account different time/temperature as well as to allow a structure that must rise higher.